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2021 January 17 18:17 PST

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JAN 17 Vandenberg AFB Launch Schedule updated

Next Vandenberg Launch
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As of January 17

The next Vandenberg AFB rocket launch may be a Firefly Alpha on February 28. The vehicle will carry multiple payloads into orbit.

For a complete listing of past Vandenberg launches, go to Vandenberg AFB Launch History. To access launch photos, videos, and audio reports, visit the Vandenberg Rocket and Missile Launch Multimedia library.

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Virgin Orbit Aces Second Launch Demo and Deploys NASA Payloads

(JAN 17) Mojave, California - Virgin Orbit, the California-based satellite launch company, confirmed that its LauncherOne rocket reached space during the company's second launch demonstration today, successfully deploying 10 payloads for NASA's Launch Services Program (LSP). More


Cloud vortices

The towering peaks of Fogo, Santa Antão, and São Nicolau of Cabo Verde (Cape Verde) disturb passing air masses and clouds producing trails called von Kármán vortex streets. The distinctive pattern can occur when a fluid passes a tall, isolated, stationary object. The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA’s Terra spacecraft captured this image of the swirling trails of clouds on December 20. Terra was launched from California's Vandenberg AFB in 1999. Image courtesy of NASA

A New NASA Space Telescope, SPHEREx, Is Moving Ahead

The observatory will map the entire sky to study the rapid expansion of the universe after the big bang, the composition of young planetary systems, and the history of galaxies.

(JAN 5) NASA's upcoming space telescope, the Spectro-Photometer for the History of the Universe, Epoch of Reionization and Ices Explorer, or SPHEREx, is one step closer to launch. More

SpaceX Awarded Launch Contract

(DEC 31) Space Exploration Technologies Inc. (SpaceX), Hawthorne, California, has been awarded a $150,450,000 firm-fixed-price contract for launch services from Vandenberg Air Force Base for the Space Development Agency's Tranche 0 Transport and Tracking Layer space vehicles. SpaceX will provide standalone launch services via two launches, with the first launch occurring in September 2022, and the entire constellation on orbit no later than March 31, 2023. The Space Development Agency, Washington, D.C., is the contracting activity.

Department of Defense

Tule Fog

California Tule Fog from space

Wintertime in California’s Central Valley means snow in the high Sierra Nevada and a blanket of tule fog hanging low over the Valley floor. The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on board NASA’s Terra satellite acquired a true-color image of Central Valley fog on December 20. This relatively narrow bank stretches about 325 miles (523 km) from north to south. Tule fog is an exceptionally dense fog that forms in the Central Valley each winter after the ground has become damp from a recent rain. Image and caption courtesy of NASA

New Sunspot Cycle Could Be One Of The Strongest On Record

Scientists use extended, 22-year solar cycle to make the forecast

(DEC 14) A team of scientists led by the National Center for Atmospheric Research is predicting that the sunspot cycle that started this fall could be one of the strongest since record-keeping began. More

First Data

Southeastern U.S. from space

The data in this graphic are the first sea surface height measurements from the Sentinel-6 Michael Freilich satellite (S6MF), which launched Nov. 21 from Vandenberg AFB, Calif. They show the ocean off the southern tip of Africa, with red colors indicating higher sea level relative to blue areas, which are lower. Image Credit: EUMETSAT

NASA Awards Launch Services Contracts

(DEC 11) NASA’s Launch Services Program (LSP) has awarded multiple Venture Class Launch Services Demonstration 2 (VCLS Demo 2) contracts to launch small satellites (SmallSats) to space, including CubeSats, microsats or nanosatellites. The three companies selected to provide these commercial launch capabilities, and the value of their firm fixed-price contracts, are:

  • Astra Space Inc. of Alameda, California: $3.9 million
  • Relativity Space Inc. of Long Beach, California: $3.0 million
  • Firefly Black LLC of Cedar Park, Texas: $9.8 million

SmallSats, including CubeSats, are playing an increasingly larger role in exploration, technology demonstration, scientific research, and educational investigations at NASA. These miniature satellites provide a low-cost platform for NASA missions.

LSP supports the agency’s CubeSat Launch Initiative (CSLI) by providing launch opportunities to CubeSats that are awaiting launch. The VCLS Demo 2 contracts will launch CubeSats selected through the CSLI to demonstrate a launch capability for smaller payloads that NASA anticipates it will require on a recurring basis for future science missions.

The Earth Science Division of NASA’s Science Mission Directorate has partnered with LSP to fund the VCLS Demo 2 contracts. These VCLS Demo 2 launches of small satellites can tolerate a higher level of risk than larger missions and will demonstrate – and help mitigate – risks associated with the use of new launch vehicles providing access to space for future small spacecraft and missions.


VSS Unity Preparing for First Powered Flight from New Mexico

(DEC 1) Virgin Galactic today announced its new flight window since it paused the spaceflight preparations in response to state guidelines from the New Mexico Department of Health to reduce the spread of COVID-19.

The new flight window will open on December 11, pending good weather conditions and technical readiness. This flight expects to fulfill a number of objectives, including testing elements of the customer cabin as well as assessing the upgraded horizontal stabilizers and flight controls during boost. The flight will also carry payloads as part of the NASA Flight Opportunities Program.

The flight will be conducted by essential personnel only. No guests or media will be onsite, in accordance with company and state COVID-19 protocols. The operational footprint at our New Mexico facilities has been further minimized in the past 2 weeks. Only essential staff will be onsite to support the pre-flight operations ahead of the flight and the day of flight.

Virgin Galactic

U.S. Ally to Get Modern GPS Equipment

(NOV 23) The Space and Missile Systems Center’s Space Production Corps achieved a major milestone on Sept 30 when the Global Positioning System (GPS) Foreign Military Sales (FMS) office received its first Military Code (M-Code) capable Military GPS User Equipment (MGUE) order from Germany.

SMC is facilitating international access and availability of M-Code user equipment as directed by the Secretary of the Air Force and the Office of the Secretary of Defense to 58 authorized nations. Germany is expected to receive delivery of its first M-Code receiver in 2021. Additional foreign military sales of MGUE are being worked. Currently, SMC is engaged with several nations in bi-lateral M-Code prototyping, demonstration, and lead platform planning efforts. Under a multilateral agreement, MGUE ground-based receivers are on schedule to be loaned to approved partners for early integration and test in national weapons systems.

M-Code is an upgrade to the currently available GPS signals that provides enhanced secure positioning, navigation and timing (PNT) performance, anti-jam, and anti-spoofing to provide a more resilient PNT solution. It will improve interoperability with our defense partners’ equipment and operations while increasing navigation warfare effectiveness for allied operations.

SMC is the United States Space Force’s center of excellence for acquiring and developing military space systems. Providing MGUE to our allies is another example of SMC delivering vital capabilities to the warfighter and the world.

U.S. Space Force Space and Missile Center

SpaceX Launches Sentinel-6 Satellite from VAFB

(NOV 21) VANDENBERG AIR FORCE BASE, Calif. -- Team Vandenberg launched the Sentinel-6 Michael Freilich satellite Saturday, Nov. 21, at 9:17 a.m., from Vandenberg Air Force Base. The Sentinel-6 is the first of two identical satellites to head into Earth orbit five years apart to continue sea level observations for at least the next decade.

Col. Anthony Mastalir, 30th Space Wing commander was the space launch commander for this mission.

“The Western Range is excited to provide the opportunity for this unique launch,” said Col. Anthony Mastalir, 30th Space Wing commander. “Working together with NASA and SpaceX to provide a successful launch takes planning and team work and I am proud of the work my 30th Space Wing members have done today. The technology from this satellite will provide critical data for scientific research and lay the framework for future generations to study the ocean.”

The 30th Space Wing’s primary responsibilities include maintaining and operating the Western range, providing mission assurance, safeguarding the public and ensuring minimal environmental impact so we can provide services, facilities and range safety control for the execution of DoD, civil and commercial launches.

Vandenberg AFB

Saturday Launch Visibility

(NOV 20) Saturday morning's scheduled launch of a Falcon 9 rocket from Vandenberg AFB appears to be on schedule. Plans call for the rocket to lift off from Space Launch Complex 4-East on south Vandenberg at 9:17 PST. Following liftoff, the Falcon 9 will rise vertically for several seconds before it gradually pitches over and heads towards the south-southwest as it parallels the coast. If the launch goes as planned, the rocket will place NASA's Sentinel 6 sea level-measuring satellite into orbit.

If the sky is clear, the first few minutes of the launch should be visible to the unaided eye along the coast from San Luis Obispo to Malibu and inland as far as Santa Paula, Moorpark, and Newbury Park. Observers in outlying areas may also be able to see the launch provided they know exactly where to look and have an unobstructed horizon.

For countdown status and video coverage of the launch, go to:

During previous launches video feeds have been up to a minute behind, so don't rely on them to know when events such as liftoff are scheduled to occur.

For information about the mission, go to:

Brian Webb

Martian Selfie

Curiosity Mars rover selfie

NASA's Curiosity Mars rover took this selfie at a location nicknamed "Mary Anning" after a 19th century English paleontologist. Curiosity snagged three samples of drilled rock at this site on its way out of the Glen Torridon region, which scientists believe preserves an ancient habitable environment. NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, in Pasadena, California, leads the Curiosity mission. Image credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/MSSS

Vandenberg Launch Delayed

(NOV 14) The December Delta IV Heavy/NROL-82 launch from Vandenberg AFB has been delayed.

There is no new launch date.

Brian Webb

Sentinel-6 Michael Freilich Prepared for Launch

The newest addition to a long line of ocean-monitoring satellites is ready to head into space.

(NOV 5) With a little over two weeks to go until its California launch, the Sentinel-6 Michael Freilich spacecraft is undergoing final preparations. Technicians and engineers have encapsulated the satellite in the payload fairing - the protective nosecone that will ride atop the SpaceX Falcon 9 rocket. The launch is targeted for Nov. 21. More

Minuteman III Launched from Vandenberg

Minuteman III launch

An Air Force Global Strike Command unarmed Minuteman III intercontinental ballistic missile launches during an operational test at 12:27 a.m. Pacific Time, Thursday, Oct. 29, at Vandenberg Air Force Base, California. U.S. Air Force photo by Michael Peterson

(OCT 29) VANDENBERG AIR FORCE BASE, Calif. -- An operational test launch of an Air Force Global Strike Command unarmed Minuteman III intercontinental ballistic missile launched from Vandenberg Air Force Base Thursday, Oct. 29, at 12:27 a.m. Pacific Time.

All test launches validate and verify the effectiveness, readiness and accuracy of the weapon system as they are conducted to test the entire intercontinental ballistic missile system, according to Air Force Global Strike Command.

Mr. Ron Cortopassi, 30th Space Wing executive director, was the launch decision authority.

“The ICBM test launch program demonstrates our Nation’s nuclear deterrence forces are safe, secure, effective and ready to defend the United States, and Vandenberg plays an integral part in providing the capabilities necessary to meet those test objectives,” said Cortopassi. “Even in times of global pandemic, our Airmen are able to provide the range support required to safely test an ICBM launch.”

Vandenberg AFB

Burn Scars

California burn scars from space

Scars from California's recent wildfires are visible in this Terra spacecraft image taken October 14. The false-color image recorded by the spacecraft's MODIS instrument uses a combination of visible and infrared light to better visualize the burn scars by making them easier to see against the vegetation. Burned areas appear brown, black, and brick red while and unburned vegetation appears bright green. Image Credit: MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA GSFC

U.S.-European Sea Level Satellite Gears Up for Launch

The Sentinel-6 Michael Freilich spacecraft will soon be heading into orbit to monitor the height of the ocean for nearly the entire globe.

(OCT 16) Preparations are ramping up for the Nov. 10 launch of the world's latest sea level satellite. More

New Mexico Target Launch

(OCT 7) REDSTONE ARSENAL, Alabama – The U.S. Army Space and Missile Defense Command (USASMDC) Technical Center’s Targets Division launched a Black Dagger target from Fort Wingate, New Mexico, into White Sands Missile Range, New Mexico, Oct. 1 during a flight test demonstrating new interoperability between the Patriot and Terminal High Altitude Area Defense, or THAAD, systems.

“Preliminary indications are that the launch was very successful,” said Cain Crouch, launch test director and aerospace engineer with the Targets Division. “The purpose was to further test the capability of the interceptor system and at first glance, the target met all performance requirements and our customers are extremely satisfied with the target performance.

Members of the Targets Division built the Black Dagger target as a ballistic missile target capable of threat-matching for use in advanced missile defense systems testing.

The Black Dagger is a two-stage, short-range ballistic missile that is created by mating a Pathfinder Zombie target missile, another USASMDC custom-built target missile, on top of a Terrier MK70 first stage booster.

The test demonstrated the ability to expand the area a Patriot battery can defend by using a THAAD radar. The Patriot system was able to launch its interceptor sooner and engage the threat missile earlier in flight.

During the flight test, an Army-Navy/Transportable Radar Surveillance and Control Model 2, or AN/TPY-2, detected and tracked the Black Dagger. A Patriot weapon system successfully achieved an intercept of the target with a Patriot Advanced Capability-3 Missile Segment Enhancement interceptor using data provided by the AN/TPY-2 radar.

Adapted from a U.S. Army News Feature

Fresh Craters

Fresh martian craters

The HiRISE camera aboard NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) took this image of a crater cluster on Mars, the first ever to be discovered with AI. The AI first spotted the craters in images taken the orbiter's Context Camera; scientists followed up with this HiRISE image to confirm the craters. The AI used to discover these craters was developed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Southern California. JPL, manages the MRO for NASA's Science Mission Directorate. Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/University of Arizona

Boeing to Develop Next-generation Satellite System for U.S. Space Force

First phase of Evolved Strategic SATCOM program includes prototype payload, architecture development

(OCT 1) EL SEGUNDO, Calif. - Boeing [NYSE: BA] has received one of three development contracts to build a satellite payload prototype and develop a new secure, resilient satellite communications architecture for the U.S. Space Force’s Evolved Strategic SATCOM (ESS) program.

ESS will be a military satellite communications (MILSATCOM) system. It is a critical component of the U.S. Space Force’s strategy.

The initial ESS development contract is valued at $298 million. Contracts for the full ESS system are expected to be awarded in 2025.

Boeing’s support of the U.S. government’s SATCOM mission spans six decades and has since included programs that span air, land and space domains. The company’s secure MILSATCOM programs include extremely high-frequency payloads, the Wideband Global SATCOM constellation, the Protected Tactical Enterprise Service and Protected Tactical SATCOM program, which deliver survivable, secure and resilient communications to the U.S. military and its allies.


New Sea Level Satellite Arrives at California Launch Site

The Sentinel-6 Michael Freilich spacecraft will launch from the U.S. West Coast aboard a SpaceX Falcon 9 rocket in November.

(SEP 25) The world's latest ocean-monitoring satellite has arrived at Vandenberg Air Force Base in Central California to be prepared for its Nov. 10 launch. More

Ground Detail

Southwestern U.S.

Despite widespread smoke from weeks of wildfires, ample ground detail is visible in California and surrounding areas in this satellite image taken September 19. The color view was recorded by NOAA's GOES-West satellite some 23,000 miles above the east Pacific. Image credit: NOAA

Solar Cycle 25 Is Here. NASA, NOAA Scientists Explain What That Means

(SEP 15) Solar Cycle 25 has begun. During a media event on Tuesday, experts from NASA and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) discussed their analysis and predictions about the new solar cycle - and how the coming upswing in space weather will impact our lives and technology on Earth, as well as astronauts in space. More

Rocket Launched from New Mexico

(SEP 13) On September 8 NASA launched its first sounding rocket since the coronavirus pandemic began in the United States.

The two-stage Black Brant IX suborbital rocket lifted off from White Sands Missile Range in New Mexico and carried the DUST-2 payload to a height of approximately 215 miles before descending by parachute. The payload was recovered and good data was received during the mission.

The DUST-2 mission simulated how tiny grains of space dust – the raw materials of stars, planets and solar systems – form and grow. DUST-2, a collaboration between NASA and the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, follows up on the DUST mission launched in October 2019.

Brian Webb

Minuteman III Launched from Vandenberg

Minuteman III launch

An unarmed Minuteman III intercontinental ballistic missile launches from Vandenberg Air Force Base, Calif. early on the morning of September 2. Courtesy photo by Connor Riley

(SEP 2) VANDENBERG AIR FORCE BASE, Ca. -- An operational test launch of an Air Force Global Strike Command unarmed Minuteman III intercontinental ballistic missile launched from Vandenberg Air Force Base Wednesday, Sept. 2, at 12:03 a.m., Pacific Time.

The purpose of the ICBM test launch program is to validate and verify the safety, security, effectiveness, and reliability of the weapon system, according to Air Force Global Strike Command.

Col. Kris Barcomb, 30th Operations Group commander, was the launch decision authority.

“Our outstanding Airmen and space professionals continue to showcase flawless execution and teamwork between the 30th Space Wing and the 576th Flight Test Squadron,” said Barcomb. “This test launch represents another successful demonstration of our nation’s capability and underscores the fact that our nuclear enterprise is safe, secure, reliable, effective and ready to defend the United States and our allies.”

Vandenberg AFB

NASA Engineers Checking InSight's Weather Sensors

An electronics issue is suspected to be preventing the sensors from sharing their data about Mars weather with the spacecraft.

(AUG 24) PASADENA, Calif. - Weather sensors aboard NASA's InSight Mars lander stopped providing data on Sunday, Aug. 16, 2020, a result of an issue affecting the sensor suite's electronics. Engineers at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Southern California are working to understand the cause of the issue.

Called the Auxiliary Payload Sensor Suite (APSS), the sensors collect data on wind speed and direction, air temperature and pressure, and magnetic fields. Throughout each Martian day, or sol, InSight's main computer retrieves data stored in APSS' control computer for later transmission to orbiting spacecraft, which relay the data to Earth.

APSS is in safe mode and unlikely to be reset before the end of the month while mission team members work toward a diagnosis. JPL engineers are optimistic that resetting the control computer may address the issue but need to investigate the situation further before returning the sensors to normal.

Jet Propulsion Laboratory

Heat Wave

Southeastern U.S. from space

The ECOSTRESS instrument aboard the International Space Station recorded this temperature map of southern California on August 14 during a period of elevated temperatures. ECOSTRESS observations have a spatial resolution of about 77 by 77 yards (70 by 70 meters), which enables researchers to study surface-temperature conditions down to the size of a football field. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, in Pasadena, Calif. built and manages the ECOSTRESS instrument for NASA. Image credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech

White Sands Conducts Missile Defense Test

(AUG 20) WHITE SANDS, NM - ?The U.S. Army successfully intercepted a high-performance, high-speed tactical ballistic missile (TBM) target and a cruise missile target during a flight test using the Northrop Grumman Corporation Integrated Battle Command System (IBCS) Aug. 20 at White Sands Missile Range.

The target missiles were part of the second of two live-fire tests during the Army's IBCS Limited User Test (LUT) at WSMR, and demonstrated the system's ability to acquire, track, identify and engage diverse targets from various locations, speeds and altitudes.

The flight test commenced with the target missiles being launched from different points of origin toward the Army defenders at the controls of IBCS. The TBM target was fired far from the missile range and traveled on a ballistic trajectory, while the cruise missile surrogate flew a low-altitude course. As the target missiles traveled independently towards their targets, multiple disparate radars provided data to IBCS. IBCS integrated the data to form a single uninterrupted composite track of each threat, impossible with any single sensor, which then informed engagement solutions with the best interceptors to engage both incoming threats. The soldiers then executed the IBCS-enabled engagement, which included the launch of a PAC-2 to intercept the cruise missile and a PAC-3 to intercept the advanced TBM. The successful execution of this second LUT flight test moves IBCS another step closer to Milestone C followed by production and fielding of IBCS.

IBCS is the centerpiece of the U.S. Army's modernization strategy for air and missile defense to address the changing battlefield. IBCS enables revolutionary and battle survivable "any-sensor, best-effector" operations by: fusing information from multiple, disparate sensors to create a single integrated air picture; and employing all available effectors to defeat advancing threats.

Northrop Grumman / White Sands Missile Rage

Northrop Grumman Successfully Tests of New Rocket Motor

(AUG 13) PROMONTORY, Utah – Aug. 13, 2020 – Northrop Grumman Corporation (NYSE: NOC) conducted its first ground test of an extended length 63-inch-diameter Graphite Epoxy Motor (GEM 63XL) today in Promontory, Utah. This variation of the company’s GEM 63 strap-on booster was developed in partnership with United Launch Alliance (ULA) to provide additional lift capability to the Vulcan Centaur vehicle.

“Our new GEM 63XL motors leverage its flight-proven heritage while utilizing state-of-the-art manufacturing technology to enhance launch vehicle heavy-lift capabilities,” said Charlie Precourt, vice president, propulsion systems, Northrop Grumman. “The GEM 63XL increases thrust and performance by 15-20 percent compared to a standard GEM 63.”

During today’s static test, the motor fired for approximately 90 seconds, producing nearly 449,000 pounds of thrust to qualify the motor’s internal insulation, propellant grain, ballistics and nozzle in a cold-conditioned environment. This test demonstrated materials and technologies similar to the GEM 63 rocket motor that qualified for flight in October 2019.

Northrop Grumman has supplied rocket propulsion to ULA and its heritage companies for a variety of launch vehicles since 1964. The GEM family of strap-on motors was developed starting in the early 1980s with the GEM 40 to support the Delta II launch vehicle. The company then followed with the GEM 46 for the Delta II Heavy, and the GEM 60, which flew 86 motors over 26 Delta IV launches before retiring in 2019 with 100 percent success. The first flight of the GEM 63 motors will be on a ULA Atlas V launch vehicle planned for fourth quarter 2020, and GEM 63XL motors will support the Vulcan rocket in 2021.

Northrop Grumman

Minuteman III Launched

Minuteman III launch

An unarmed Minuteman III intercontinental ballistic missile launches August 4 from Vandenberg Air Force Base, Calif. (U.S. Air Force photo by Senior Airman Hanah Abercrombie)

(AUG 4) VANDENBERG AIR FORCE BASE, Calif. -- An operational test launch of an Air Force Global Strike Command unarmed Minuteman III intercontinental ballistic missile launched from Vandenberg Air Force Base Tuesday, Aug. 4, at 12:21 a.m. Pacific Time.

The purpose of the ICBM test launch program is to validate and verify the safety, security, effectiveness, and readiness of the weapon system, according to Air Force Global Strike Command.

Col. Anthony Mastalir, 30th Space Wing commander, was the launch decision authority.

“This launch demonstrates that we are able to provide the range support needed to facilitate this test during peacetime operations in the midst of COVID-19 operations,” said Mastalir. “Signifying that our nuclear enterprise is safe, secure, reliable, effective and ready to defend the United States and our allies.”

Vandenberg AFB

Minuteman Launch Scheduled

(AUG 3) VANDENBERG AIR FORCE BASE, Calif. -- An operational test launch of an Air Force Global Strike Command unarmed Minuteman III intercontinental ballistic missile is scheduled for Tuesday, Aug. 4, between 12:21 a.m. and 6:21 a.m. from north Vandenberg.

The purpose of the ICBM test launch program is to verify the safety, security, effectiveness and readiness of the weapon system, according to Air Force Global Strike Command.

Vandenberg AFB

NASA, ULA Launch Mars Rover Mission

(JUL 31) NASA's Mars 2020 Perseverance rover mission is on its way to the Red Planet to search for signs of ancient life and collect samples to send back to Earth. More

Magnetic Field

Galaxy magnetic field

The magnetic field of NGC 4217, a star-forming, spiral galaxy, similar to the Milky Way is visible in this composite image released by the University of New Mexico on Wednesday. The view was created by combining optical data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and Kitt Peak National Observatory and radio data from the Very Large Array. The galaxy is seen edge-on in visible light and the magnetic field lines, shown in green, are revealed at radio wavelengths. Image Credit: University of New Mexico

General Atomics Awarded Contract for Spacecraft

(JUL 22) SAN DIEGO, CA - General Atomics Electromagnetic Systems (GA-EMS) has been awarded a contract by NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) to build the Total and Spectral solar Irradiance Sensor-2 (TSIS-2) spacecraft which will provide measurements of solar irradiance and high-quality data for the long term climate record. GA-EMS will leverage its proven Orbital Test Bed (OTB) platform architecture to design and develop the satellite for TSIS-2, which is scheduled to launch in early 2023.

“We are extremely pleased to expand our relationship with NASA and to continue supporting their research goals with our flexible, modular OTB platforms,” stated Scott Forney, president of GA-EMS. “This contract is another exciting opportunity that demonstrates GA-EMS’ ability to deliver satellites on an aggressive schedule. The OTB platform will allow us to quickly and affordably integrate the TSIS-2 payload suite onto a free-flying spacecraft that will operate in a sun-synchronous orbit and allow NASA continuous solar monitoring capabilities throughout its mission lifecycle.”

On a separate contract, the University of Colorado (CU) Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics (LASP) will provide the Total Irradiance Monitor (TIM) and Spectral Irradiance Monitor (SIM) sensors for TSIS-2. GA-EMS will utilize its new spacecraft development facility in Centennial, CO for the design, manufacture, assembly, integration and test of the spacecraft and payload, as well as for mission operations support.

“Our spacecraft designs provide lower-cost access to space helping customers keep pace with the demand to provide for missions like TSIS-2,” stated Nick Bucci, vice president of GA-EMS Missile Defense and Space Systems. “Our agile approach to small satellite design, operational flight experience with high mission assurance, and our state-of-the-art spacecraft manufacturing, assembly, integration and testing facilities allows us to create tailored solutions in shorter timeframes to allow customers to execute a variety of missions on budget, and on time.”

General Atomics Electromagnetic Systems

Satellites to Test Deorbit Technology

(JUL 16) EL SEGUNDO, Calif. – Two Millennium Space Systems-built DRAGRACER small satellites are being prepared for a first-of-its kind, controlled flight experiment later this year to mature future deorbit tether systems for low Earth orbiting satellites.

The DRAGRACER mission uses the scientific method to compare deorbit performance with two identical satellites: one in a naturally decaying orbit and one deploying a tether to expedite de-orbit. By flying this DRAGRACER experiment, Millennium plans to empirically compare the satellite hosting the 70-meter-long Terminator Tape provided by Tethers Unlimited to the control satellite, while calibrating predictive models with radar tracking data.

The satellites are scheduled to ship in September to TriSept Corp, the mission launch service provider, for integration onto a Rocket Lab Electron launch vehicle. Once launched, the DRAGRACER mission begins when the two satellites, named ALCHEMY and AUGURY, eject from the rocket. After deployment, the DRAGRACER payload separates into two 6U Millennium RAPTOR satellites with identical stowed mass properties and drag coefficients. ALCHEMY will house the 70 meter tether while AUGURY will provide a baseline deorbit trajectory.

Funded entirely with internal research and development funding and similar to a concept car in the auto industry, the RAPTOR satellite line is Millennium’s internal concept platform for hosting new and promising next-generation technologies. These missions launch in less than 12 months from inception and quantify and characterize technical performance and behavior in the space environment.

“The space community understands tether systems can expedite reentry, but this is our first opportunity to truly quantify performance directly and more effectively calibrate models developed over the last 50 years,” said Dr. Robert Hoyt, founder and CEO, Tethers Unlimited. “Predictions suggest the tethered spacecraft will deorbit in approximately 45 days, while the untethered spacecraft remains in orbit for approximately 7 to 9 years.”

Millennium Space Systems

Tropical Storm Fay

Tropical Storm Fay

NASA's AIRS instrument captured this image of Tropical Storm Fay around 2 p.m. local time on July 10, 2020, as the storm swept through New England. Aqua was launched from California's Vandenberg AFB in 2002. Image Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech

SETI Institute Awarded Planetary Protection Contract

(JUL 10) NASA has awarded the SETI Institute in Mountain View, California, a contract to support all phases of current and future planetary protection missions to ensure compliance with planetary protection standards.

The SETI Institute will work with NASA’s Office of Planetary Protection (OPP) to provide technical reviews and recommendations, validate biological cleanliness on flight projects, provide training for NASA and its partners, as well as develop guidelines for implementation of NASA requirements, and disseminate information to stakeholders and the public. The role of OPP is to promote responsible exploration of the solar system by protecting both Earth and mission destinations from biological contamination.

Planetary protection preserves environments, as well as the science, ensuring verifiable scientific exploration for extraterrestrial life. Some of the upcoming NASA science missions that will be supported by this contract include the Mars 2020 and Europa Clipper missions, and preparations for NASA’s Mars Sample Return mission. In addition, future human spaceflight exploration under NASA’s Artemis program, such as the Gateway lunar orbital outpost, the Human Lander System, and Commercial Lunar Payload Services initiative, will be supported under this contract, as part of America’s Moon to Mars exploration approach.

The contract is a fixed-price indefinite-delivery/indefinite-quantity contract with a maximum award value of $4.7 million over a five-year period that began July 1.


Bright Morning Comet

(JUL 3) Today, Comet NEOWISE (C/2020 F3) is passing by the sun near the orbit of Mercury--and it seems to be thriving. Many astronomers in Europe and the USA photographed the comet at the crack of dawn shining through bright twilight. The mornings ahead could be even better. Visit today's edition of for pictures and observing tips.

Glide Test

SpaceShipTwo Glide Test

Virgin Galactic’s SpaceShipTwo completes an unpowered test flight at Spaceport America, New Mexico on June 25. Pending completion of an extensive data review of the flight, the Virgin Galactic team will start preparing for powered spaceflights from Spaceport America. Image courtesy of Virgin Galactic

Relativity Space to Build Launch Site at Vandenberg

(JUN 24) Vandenberg, CA -- Relativity Space, the first company to utilize 3D printing, robotics and AI to reinvent aerospace manufacturing, extended its launch capabilities via a Right of Entry Agreement with the United States Air Force, 30th Space Wing for development of rocket launch facilities at Vandenberg Air Force Base. The Right of Entry (RoE) allows Relativity and the 30th Space Wing to assess the viability of conducting launch operations at a location currently comprised of Building 330 and adjacent land area. Relativity’s launch capabilities, which will now span both coasts of the United States, offer customers a complete range of orbital inclinations, including polar and Sun Synchronous orbits (SSO), adding to the LEO, MEO, GEO, and low inclination orbits possible at Cape Canaveral LC-16. These expanded capabilities, along with the company’s autonomous production via metal 3D printing, help drive Relativity’s continued momentum.

“We’re honored to begin this partnership with the 30th Space Wing and join the exclusive group of private space companies able to conduct launches at Vandenberg,” says Tim Ellis, CEO of Relativity. “The West Coast launch facilities allow Relativity to provide affordable access to polar and sun sync orbits that are critical for both government and commercial customers. The geographic southerly position of B-330 at Vandenberg offers schedule certainty and increased launch frequency that will be advantageous to our Terran 1 customers.”

Vandenberg Air Force Base is the home of the 30th Space Wing, which manages the Department of Defense’s space and missile testing, as well as satellite launches into polar and sun sync orbits from the West Coast. If approved, the B-330 launch site at Vandenberg will be capable of supporting Relativity’s rocket, Terran 1, the world’s first and only fully 3D printed rocket, as well as the company’s future capabilities. Relativity’s senior leadership team, drawn from both longtime aerospace companies and industry pioneers, has executed dozens of successful launches at Vandenberg.

Relativity Space

Rocket Lab to Demonstrate Fastest Launch Turnaround to Date

Rocket Lab to demonstrate rapid launch capability by launching next mission just three weeks after previous launch

(JUN 15) Long Beach, Calif. - Satellite manufacturer and global leader in dedicated small satellite launch, Rocket Lab, has today announced its next Electron mission is scheduled to launch just three weeks after its most recent mission in a demonstration of the company's rapid launch capability. More

Acoustic Testing

Acoustic testing of the Sentinel-6 spacecraft

Mission team members perform acoustic tests of the Sentinel-6 Michael Freilich satellite in a chamber outfitted with giant speakers that blast the spacecraft with sound. This is to ensure that the high decibels associated with liftoff won't damage the spacecraft. Sentinel-6 is scheduled for launch from California's Vandenberg AFB in late 2020. Image Credit: Airbus

6th SOPS Provides Assistance During Hurricane Season

(JUN 12) SCHRIEVER AIR FORCE BASE, Colo. -- The 6th Space Operations Squadron delivers meteorological data to the military and civilians around the world throughout the year that plays a critical role during hurricane season. More

JPL Mission Breaks Record for Smallest Satellite to Detect an Exoplanet

About the size of a briefcase, the CubeSat was built to test new technologies but exceeded expectations by spotting a planet outside our solar system.

(JUN 2) PASADENA, Calif. - Long before it was deployed into low-Earth orbit from the International Space Station in Nov. 2017, the tiny ASTERIA spacecraft had a big goal: to prove that a satellite roughly the size of a briefcase could perform some of the complex tasks much larger space observatories use to study exoplanets, or planets outside our solar system. More

Airborne Rocket Launch Conducted, Mission Terminated

Southeastern U.S. from space

A LauncherOne rocket first stage ignites following an airborne launch on May 25. Image courtesy of Virgin Orbit

(MAY 25) Mojave, California - Virgin Orbit, the California-based satellite launch company, conducted a launch demonstration of its innovative air-launched rocket today in the skies over the Pacific Ocean just off the California coast. The company successfully completed all of its pre-launch procedures, the captive carry flight out to the drop site, clean telemetry lock from multiple dishes, a smooth pass through the racetrack, terminal count, and a clean release. After being released from the carrier aircraft, the LauncherOne rocket successfully lighted its booster engine on cue — the first time the company had attempted an in-air ignition. An anomaly then occurred early in first stage flight, and the mission safely terminated. The carrier aircraft Cosmic Girl and all of its crew landed safely at Mojave Air and Space Port, concluding the mission.

“Our team performed their prelaunch and flight operations with incredible skill today. Test flights are instrumented to yield data and we now have a treasure trove of that. We accomplished many of the goals we set for ourselves, though not as many as we would have liked,” said Virgin Orbit CEO Dan Hart. “Nevertheless, we took a big step forward today. Our engineers are already poring through the data. Our next rocket is waiting. We will learn, adjust, and begin preparing for our next test, which is coming up soon.”

The company’s next rocket is in final stages of integration at its Long Beach manufacturing facility, with a half-dozen other rockets for subsequent missions not far behind. Virgin Orbit’s decision to begin production of multiple rockets well in advance of this test flight will enable the team to progress to the next attempt at a significantly faster pace, shortly after making any necessary modifications to the launch system.

Virgin Orbit

DESI Team Prepares for Instrument's Restart

(MAY 22) The Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument (DESI), installed on an Arizona mountaintop, was quickly moving through its testing stages and making headway toward the start of its 5-year observing run as project participants from around the world traveled to attend a DESI collaboration meeting in Tucson, Arizona, in early March. More

Advanced Rocket Motor Tested in Utah

(MAY 12) HUNTSVILLE, Ala. – Aerojet Rocketdyne recently completed a successful static-fire test of an advanced large solid rocket motor, called the Missile Components Advanced Technologies Demonstration Motor (MCAT Demo), under contract to the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL).

Aerojet Rocketdyne’s MCAT Demo large solid rocket motor design incorporates numerous advanced technologies and materials. The program’s primary goal is to develop technologies to increase propulsion performance and lower manufacturing and operational costs for future applications. In order to meet the goals, the MCAT Demo design consists of a state-of-the-art graphite composite case, an affordable advanced nozzle and high-energy, long-life solid propellant.

“The successful MCAT Demo enables future Air Force ICBMs to deliver higher performance while reducing cost,” said Jason Mossman, Chief of the Motors Branch at AFRL, Edwards Air Force Base. “We are committed to providing world-class technology for Air Force Nuclear Deterrence Operations, and we are very pleased with the outcome of the MCAT Demo.”

During the static firing, the 52-in. diameter MCAT Demo motor fired successfully. Initial post-test inspection indicates that all components functioned as designed. AFRL provided technical and managerial oversight of the MCAT contract.

AFRL facilitated the testing at the Utah Test and Training Range to demonstrate the performance of the Aerojet Rocketdyne MCAT rocket motor. The MCAT Demo motor firing is the first test in a series of strategic-sized motor demonstrations planned in the near future.

Aerojet Rocketdyne

Southeast from Space

Southeastern U.S. from space

On May 5, NASA released this true-color image (click to enlarge) of the Southeastern U.S. as seen by the Terra spacecraft. The satellite's Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) instrument recorded the view during a daylight pass over the region on May 2. MODIS was built by the Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing, Santa Barbara, Calif. Image courtesy of NASA

SpaceShipTwo Completes First Flight From Spaceport America

(MAY 1) LAS CRUCES, N.M.-- Virgin Galactic Holdings, Inc. (NYSE: SPCE) (“Virgin Galactic” or “the Company”) and The Spaceship Company (“TSC”) today announced the successful completion of its first SpaceShipTwo test flight from Spaceport America. More

Lab Meets Milestone for Ocean Mission


Space Dynamics Laboratory engineers prepare the engineering test unit of the Short-Wave Infrared Detection Assembly for NASA's PACE spacecraft for shipping in North Logan, UT, in this February 20, 2020 photo. Photo credit: Space Dynamics Laboratory/Allison Bills

(APR 20) LOGAN, UT - The Space Dynamics Laboratory at Utah State University recently delivered to NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center an engineering test unit of the Short-Wave Infrared Detection Assembly, a major subcomponent on NASA’s Plankton, Aerosol, Cloud, ocean Ecosystem spacecraft. PACE is scheduled to launch in late 2022, and the mission will extend and improve over 20 years of satellite observations by NASA of global ocean biology, aerosols and clouds.

SDL, drawing on its flight-proven heritage in sensor technology, is designing, building and assembling the Short-Wave Infrared Detection Assembly for the PACE instrument known as the Ocean Color Instrument. The OCI is a state-of-the-art optical spectrometer that will measure properties of light over portions of the electromagnetic spectrum. The sensor will enable scientists to view continuous measurements of light made with higher resolution than is currently available.

“The delivery of the engineering test unit for the SWIR Detection Assembly is a critical milestone that will enable NASA to perform several months of rigorous instrument-level testing to prove the flight design currently being built at SDL,” said Gabe Loftus, SDL’s program manager for OCI. “Once launched, the flight-ready instrument will image the ocean from the ultraviolet to the near-infrared spectrum, giving NASA critical information on ocean ecology with unprecedented fidelity.”

The interaction of sunlight and microscopic particulates, such as phytoplankton, found in seawater affects the color of the ocean. Phytoplankton is an essential marine algae species comprising green chlorophyll. By monitoring the distribution of phytoplankton throughout Earth’s oceans via measurements of the color of seawater, scientists can further their understanding of the complex systems that drive ocean ecology. More about the PACE mission can be found at the official NASA PACE website:

Utah State University

Satellites Flown from Home

(APR 15) LOGAN, UT - The Space Dynamics Laboratory at Utah State University announced that satellite operators are flying NASA spacecraft from their homes to help prevent the spread of COVID-19.

“By leveraging government-approved secure network services and working within security and information assurance protocols, SDL has the ability to operate spacecraft effectively and securely from anywhere an internet connection exists,” said Tim Neilsen, program manager in SDL’s Commercial and Civil Space Division. “NASA’s Hyper-Angular Rainbow Polarimeter CubeSat and the Compact Infrared Radiometer in Space instrument small satellite, known as HARP and CIRiS respectively, are two science satellites that are now being commanded by SDL satellite operators outside of SDL facilities.”

Measuring approximately 10 centimeters wide, 10 centimeters high, and 30 centimeters long, the HARP satellite was built by SDL to carry the payload built by the University of Maryland, Baltimore County. The objective of HARP is to validate the in-flight capabilities of a highly accurate and precise wide field of view hyper-angular polarimeter for characterizing aerosol and cloud properties. Additionally, HARP will demonstrate that CubeSat-size technology can provide science-quality multi-angle imaging data, paving the way for lower-cost aerosol-cloud instrument development.

Built by Ball Aerospace, CIRiS is collecting, processing, and calibrating infrared images of Earth. The satellite, about the size of a backpack with a mass of approximately 25 pounds, is testing a small, space-based infrared instrument that collects images to be used for a variety of scientific studies, including studies of cloud properties and mapping of soil moisture for measuring local drought conditions.

SDL has been solving the technical challenges faced by the military, science community, and industry for six decades and supports NASA’s vision to reveal the unknown for the benefit of humankind.

Utah State University

Korea Haze

Air pollution Yellow Sea

Suspended aerosols colored the air between China and the Korean Peninsula on April 8, 2020 when the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on board NASA’s Aqua satellite acquired this true-color image of the region. The haze, likely a combination of agricultural fires and industrial and urban pollution, appears to blow from mainland China to reach South Korea and beyond. Aqua was launched from Vandenberg AFB, Calif. in 2002. Image Credit: MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA GSFC

SMC Awards Launch Service Contract

(APR 10) LOS ANGELES AIR FORCE BASE - EL SEGUNDO, Calif. – The U.S. Space Force’s Rocket Systems Launch Program (RSLP) Office at Kirtland Air Force Base, Albuquerque, New Mexico, part of the Space and Missile Systems Center’s Launch Enterprise, today awarded a $35 million task order to VOX Space, LLC of El Segundo, California, for the Space Test Program-S28 (STP-S28) launch service.

STP-S28 is a complex mission that will deliver a number of technology demonstrations to orbit, such as Space Domain Awareness and communications advancement, and inform future space system development.

VOX Space, a U.S.-incorporated, wholly-owned subsidiary of Virgin Orbit, LLC, will utilize three launches of the LauncherOne rocket to deliver 44 small satellites to low earth orbit. The first launch is tentatively planned for October 2021.

The STP-S28 mission will provide orbital launch services for the Department of Defense’s Space Test Program. The DoD Space Test Program furthers the maturation of space-based warfighter technologies across the DoD enterprise by providing space access solutions for all research and development-related DoD auxiliary payloads on DoD, civil and commercial launches, and for all non-DoD auxiliary payloads seeking launch opportunities on DoD missions.

U.S. Space Force

Raytheon, MDA Sign
Standard Missile-3 Contract

(MAR 30) TUCSON, Ariz. - Raytheon Company (NYSE: RTN) will produce and deliver SM-3® Block IB interceptors under a $2.1 billion, multi-year U.S. Missile Defense Agency contract. It is the first multi-year contract for the SM-3 program, and covers fiscal years 2019–2023.

SM-3 is the only ballistic missile interceptor that can be launched on land and at sea. It is deployed worldwide and has achieved more than 30 exoatmospheric intercepts against ballistic missile targets.

"This procurement deal is a win-win for government and industry," said Dr. Mitch Stevison, Raytheon Strategic and Naval Systems vice president. "Efficiencies gained from this contract will allow us to reduce costs, continue to improve the SM-3 and deliver an important capability to our military."

The Block IB variant achieved full-rate production in 2017. The company has delivered more than 400 SM-3 rounds over the lifetime of the program.


Space Fence Declared Operational

(MAR 27) PETERSON AIR FORCE BASE, Colo. -- United States Space Force officials formally declared initial operational capability and operational acceptance of the Space Fence radar system, located on Kwajalein Island in the Republic of the Marshall Islands, March 27, 2020.

Space Fence provides significantly improved space surveillance capabilities to detect and track orbiting objects such as commercial and military satellites, depleted rocket boosters and space debris in low, medium, and geosynchronous Earth orbit regimes.

Before Space Fence, the Space Surveillance Network (SSN) tracked more than 26,000 objects. With the initial operational capability and operational acceptance of Space Fence, the catalog size is expected to increase significantly over time. Information about objects tracked by the SSN is placed in the space catalog on

The Space Fence Program Office (AFLCMC/HBQB) operating under the acquisition authority of the Space and Missile System Center awarded a contract to the Lockheed Martin Co. in June 2014 to develop Space Fence. This system is the most sensitive search radar in the SSN, capable of detecting objects in orbit as small as a marble in low earth orbit (LEO).

Space Fence is operated by the 20th Space Control Squadron (SPCS), Detachment 4, at the Space Fence Operations Center in Huntsville, Alabama, and provides data to the 18 SPCS located at Vandenberg Air Force Base, California. The 18 SPCS uses the data from Space Fence and other sensors within the SSN to maintain the space object catalog and screen operational satellites, both maneuverable and non-maneuverable, against all objects in the space catalog, which includes satellites, rocket bodies and debris.

Space Fence provides precise positional data for Space Domain Awareness to maintain a robust and accurate space object catalog, ensure orbital safety, and provide early warning for conjunction events and indications of potential threats.

Both the 18th SPCS and 20th SPCS are part of the 21st Space Wing, headquartered at Peterson Air Force Base in Colorado Springs, Colorado. The 21st SW is the Department of the Air Force’s only wing providing ground-based missile warning, missile defense and space surveillance data in defense of North America and its allies.

U.S. Space Force

Sandia Supports Hypersonic Flight Test

Hypersonic flight test

A common hypersonic glide body launches during a Defense Department flight experiment at the rocket launch range operated by Sandia National Laboratories in Kauai, Hawaii, March 19. (Photo courtesy of U.S. Navy)

(MAR 24) ALBUQUERQUE, N.M. - Sandia National Laboratories employees and contractors saw their work culminate in a hypersonic flight test conducted by the U.S. Navy and U.S. Army on March 19 at the Kauai Test Facility in Hawaii. More

NASA Accepts UC Berkeley Proposal

(MAR 22) NASA has accepted a proposal from the University of California Brekeley (UCB) for an astrophysics Small Explorer (SMEX) mission. UCB will compete with the University of Colorado at Boulder to have its concept developed into a spacecraft and flown in space.

If selected, UCB's Compton Spectrometer and Imager (COSI) mission would scan our Milky Way galaxy, measuring gamma rays from radioactive elements produced during stellar explosions to map the recent history of star death and element production. It would also measure polarization, to improve our understanding of how distant energetic cosmic explosions produce gamma rays.

John Tomsick at the University of California, Berkeley would be the Principal Investigator.

Brian Webb

Multi-manifest Satellite Vehicle Ready for Integration

(MAR 10) LOS ANGELES AIR FORCE BASE, Calif. – On March 6, the Space and Missile Systems Center's (SMC) Launch Enterprise Mission Manifest Office (MMO) delivered a fully tested and integrated multi-manifest small satellite vehicle (TDO-2) to Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS) for integration on the AEHF-6 mission, which is the first U.S. Space Force launch.

TDO-2, the multi-manifest small satellite vehicle flying with the AEHF-6 mission, is carrying multiple U.S. Government payloads that will provide optical calibration capabilities, which will support space domain awareness. The Mission of TDO-2 is to support space domain awareness through optical calibration and satellite laser ranging. This capability will assist the nation's warfighters in performing their critical missions. TDO-2 was manufactured by Georgia Institute of Technology and sponsored by Air Force Research Laboratory.

EZ-2 is integrated on the aft-end of the Centaur on the Atlas V 551 launch vehicle where it will deploy the TDO-2 Multi-manifest satellite vehicle approximately 31 minutes after launch. TDO-2 will deploy after main engine cut off (MECO) 2 and prior to the anchor AEHF satellite, which is only the second time this event has occurred during a National Security Space Launch mission. Previously a hosted payload was deployed prior to AEHF-5 successfully separating.

The MMO is increasing space warfighting domain flexibility by enabling the "swap-out" capability of multi-manifest satellites late in the integration process. The AEHF-6 mission will demonstrate this "swap-out" capability by having two qualified and compatible multi-manifest satellites vehicles ready to be substituted, if needed, as late as one month prior to launch. Considering the historical integration timeline for traditional satellites is approximately 24 months, this is just another example of how SMC is driving integration flexibility and responsiveness into the National Security Space planning process and rapidly delivering capability to the warfighter.

Part of SMC's Launch Enterprise, the MMO is blazing the way for innovation in the space warfighting domain and continuing the SMC tradition of innovation in space.

Los Angeles AFB

New Telescope To Look For Laser Pulses From Life Around Other Planets

PANOSETI observatory

Each PANOSETI observatory will house a geodesic dome of 80 innovative telescopes that can image about one-third of the heavens every night in search of sub-second pulses of light from intelligent civilizations in our galaxy. (Graphic courtesy of Shelley Wright, UCSD)

(MAR 5) BERKELEY, Calif. - Are advanced civilizations in our galaxy trying to communicate with us by means of laser blasts? More

SpaceX Selected for Asteroid Mision

(FEB 28) WASHINGTON, DC - NASA has selected SpaceX of Hawthorne, California, to provide launch services for the agency's Psyche mission. The Psyche mission currently is targeted to launch in July 2022 on a Falcon Heavy rocket from Launch Complex 39A at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station in Florida.

The total cost for NASA to launch Psyche and the secondary payloads is approximately $117 million, which includes the launch service and other mission related costs.

The Psyche mission will journey to a unique metal-rich asteroid, also named Psyche, which orbits the Sun between Mars and Jupiter. The asteroid is considered unique, as it appears to largely be made of the exposed nickel-iron core of an early planet – one of the building blocks of our solar system.

Deep within rocky, terrestrial planets, including Earth, scientists infer the presence of metallic cores, but these lie unreachably far below the planet's rocky mantles and crusts. Because we cannot see or measure Earth's core directly, the mission to Psyche offers a unique window into the violent history of collisions and accretion that created terrestrial planets.

The launch of Psyche will include two secondary payloads: Escape and Plasma Acceleration and Dynamics Explorers (EscaPADE), which will study the Martian atmosphere, and Janus, which will study binary asteroids.

NASA's Launch Services Program at Kennedy Space Center in Florida will manage the SpaceX launch service. The mission is led by Arizona State University. NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory is responsible for the mission's overall management, system engineering, integration, testing and mission operations. Maxar Space Solutions is providing a high-power solar electric propulsion spacecraft chassis.

For more information about the Psyche mission, visit:


Apache Point Observatory Open House

(FEB 27) SUNPOT, NM - Apache Point Observatory (APO), which is normally closed to the public, will be hosting an Open House on March 7th, 2020. It will be a free event, open to everyone, and will include daytime tours of APO, science activities and demonstrations

Daytime tours will last from 2-5 PM, and will include tours of the 2.5-m and 3.5-m telescope, as well as viewing of the Sun through smaller solar telescopes, and family-friendly hands-on activities. From 5 PM-Midnight, the Sunspot Visitors Center will be hosting family-friendly hands-on demonstrations, activities, and telescope viewings with graduate students from the NMSU Astronomy Department.

Light refreshments will be provided.

If you have any questions about this event, please contact APO at 575-437-6822. The observatory is located at 2001 Apache Point Road, Sunspot, NM 88349-0059.

New Mexico State University

Liquid Methane Engine Tested

Liquid methane rocket engine test

The Masten 25k lbf thrust Broadsword rocket engine. (Masten Space Systems photo/Matthew Kuhns)

(FEB 18) EDWARDS AIR FORCE BASE, Calif. – The Air Force Research Laboratory, NASA's Space Technology Mission Directorate, and Masten Space Systems Inc. successfully tested a liquid methane rocket engine, the first of its kind tested at AFRL.

AFRL and Masten signed a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement in December 2018. The agreement enabled Masten to test the Broadsword 25K engine at AFRL's rocket testing facility at Edwards Air Force Base in Test Area 1-125 and complete NASA's Tipping Point contract requirement of a ten second hot fire test.

The Broadsword 25K engine required a large supply of high-pressure gaseous nitrogen to pressure feed their engine. AFRL's Aerospace Systems Directorate and their Rocket Propulsion Division at Edwards AFB has the capability at Test Area 1-125 to deliver a large supply of high-pressure gaseous nitrogen.

The hot fire campaign started in July 2019 with four hot fire tests before the final test of 10 seconds of combustion. These hot fire tests validated the tune ignition and start-up transients of the engine. The culmination of testing ended Dec. 10, 2019 when Masten completed their Broadsword 25K engine test of 10 seconds of steady state combustion. The success of these hot fire tests validated Broadsword's startup transient and steady state performance with the new technology developed under the Tipping Point program.

The Tipping Point public-private partnership is an innovative way NASA helps industry develop promising space technologies that could benefit future commercial and government missions.

Air Force Research Laboratory

USS Maine Successfully Tests
Trident II D5LE Missile

(FEB 13) PACIFIC OCEAN — The U.S. Navy conducted a scheduled, one-missile test flight of an unarmed life-extended Trident II (D5LE) missile from USS Maine (SSBN-741), an Ohio-class ballistic missile submarine, on the Western Test Range off the coast of San Diego, California, today. More

Minuteman III Launches from Vandenberg

Minuteman II launch from Vandenberg AFB

An unarmed Minuteman III intercontinental ballistic missile launches during a developmental test at 12:33 a.m. Pacific Time Wednesday, Feb. 5, 2020, at Vandenberg Air Force Base, Calif. (U.S. Air Force photo by Senior Airman Clayton Wear)

(FEB 5) VANDENBERG AIR FORCE BASE, Calif. -- An unarmed Minuteman III intercontinental ballistic missile launched during a developmental test Wednesday, Feb. 5, at 12:33 a.m. Pacific Time from North Vandenberg.

This Minuteman III launch, conducted by Air Force Global Strike Command, was made possible by Vandenberg's extensive range support. This launch is the first that Vandenberg has hosted since it became a part of the United States Space Force. The 30th Space Wing provides critical technical capabilities in support of space launch and test customers to include telemetry and radar, command and control, optics, and communication.

Col. Kris Barcomb, 30th Operations Group commander, was the launch decision authority.

"We are very proud to have accomplished this operation with our long-standing mission partner, Air Force Global Strike Command," said Barcomb. "We look forward to building on this launch as we continue to provide robust, safe and reliable capabilities critical to the testing and evaluation of the ICBM program, and many space and range programs to come."

Col. Anthony Mastalir, 30th Space Wing commander, has a vision for Vandenberg Airmen to lead the next generation of space lift and range capabilities.

"Our Airmen remain laser-focused on the flawless execution of our launch and range missions," said Mastalir. "I am extremely proud of the continued collaboration between the 30th Space Wing and the 576th Flight Test Squadron, culminating in another successful demonstration of our steadfast commitment to mission success."

Vandenberg AFB

Wednesday Missile Launch

(FEB 1) Media sources report the Air Force Global Strike Command and U.S. Space Force have scheduled a Minuteman III missile for launch from Vandenberg AFB early next Wednesday. The unarmed ICBM is slated to lift off from north base February 5 during a 00:08-06:08 PST launch window.

Launch viewing will be hampered during most of the launch window by the nearly full moon. During that time, the event should be easily to the unaided eye for at least 50 miles. Observers with an unobstructed horizon who know exactly where to look may see the launch more than 100 miles away. If the launch happens between moonset and dawn, it should be visible over a much wider area.

If liftoff occurs late in the window, some sky watchers may be treated to an interesting display as the missile's exhaust is illuminated at high altitude by the sun while suspended in a dark sky as seen from the ground.

Brian Webb

Mars Aeroshell

Mars 2020 aeroshell

The heat shield (left) and back shell (right) that comprise the aeroshell for NASA's Mars 2020 mission are prepared at Lockheed Martin Space in Denver, Colorado, which manufactured the aeroshell. The aeroshell will encapsulate and protect the Mars 2020 rover and its descent stage both during their deep space cruise to Mars and during descent through the Martian atmosphere, which generates intense heat. Image courtesy of Lockheed Martin Space

Planet Hunting Instrument Sees First Light

(JAN 14) UCI astronomer Paul Robertson recently celebrated "first light" for NEID, a new exoplanet hunting instrument he helped develop. Installed at the 3.5-meter WIYN telescope at Kitt Peak National Observatory in Arizona's Sonoran Desert, NEID is an extremely precise radial velocity spectrometer. Its initial observations were of 51 Pegasi, a sunlike star that, in 1995, was found to have a planet in its orbit; the discovery led to the 2019 Nobel Prize in physics for Michel Mayor and Didier Queloz. According to Robertson, NEID detects exoplanets by measuring the small wobble these bodies exert on their host stars; astronomers can determine planetary mass by measuring the size of the periodic Doppler shift in the star's rotation velocity. Earlier instruments clocked speeds down to 1 meter per second, but NEID was built to register motions three times slower than that, enabling it to find planets close to the mass of Earth, which exerts a 0.1-meter-per-second tug on our sun. "NEID achieving first light is an exciting development because it means we're close to opening the instrument for science operations," said Robertson, UCI assistant professor of physics & astronomy. "This is great for the whole exoplanet science community because NEID is available for use to astronomers all over the world. It's the only ultra-precise Doppler instrument that's so accessible to the community." Robertson led implementation of NEID's thermal control system, which keeps the temperature of the optics stable to better than half a millikelvin (less than 0.0005 degree). "This temperature stability is crucial, as any thermal expansion or contraction of the optical system would create measurement shifts that would mask the signals of orbiting exoplanets," he said. Robertson is also deputy project scientist in charge of the NEID team's guaranteed time observer survey, which is designed to search for Earthlike planets orbiting nearby stars. Exoplanets discovered with NEID will help identify targets for follow-up observations with upcoming facilities such as NASA's James Webb Space Telescope, which will be able to detect and characterize the atmospheres of transiting exoplanets. NEID is funded by the joint NASA/NSF exoplanet research program NN-EXPLORE.

University of California Irvine

Californian Completes Astronaut Training

Astronaut Johnny Kim

Los Angeles native Dr. Jonny Kim joined NASA's astronaut corps on January 10 after successfully completing astronaut candidate training. Photo courtesy of NASA

(JAN 12) A Los Angeles native who recently completed two years of astronaut training is one of 11 new astronauts welcomed into NASA's astronaut ranks on Friday.

Dr. Jonny Kim, a U.S. Navy lieutenant, was born and grew up in Los Angeles. He enlisted in the U.S. Navy, then trained and operated as a Navy SEAL, completing more than 100 combat operations and earning a Silver Star and Bronze Star with Combat V. Afterward, he went on to complete a degree in mathematics at the University of San Diego and a doctorate of medicine at Harvard Medical School. Kim was a resident physician in emergency medicine at Massachusetts General Hospital in Boston.

Kim's astronaut candidate training included instruction, practice, and testing in spacewalking, robotics, International Space Station systems, T-38 jet proficiency, and the Russian language.

Brian Webb

X-15 Lecture Scheduled

(JAN 4) Michelle Evans, author of the bestselling book "The X-15 Rocket Plane, Flying the First Wings into Space" will give a free lecture on the X-15 program on January 16.

The IEEE will host the event at the Cal Lutheran Center for Entrepreneurship, 31416 Agoura Road, in Westlake Village.

Pizza and networking begins at 6:30 p.m. and the presentation is scheduled to start at 7:00 p.m.

Register at

For more information about the lecture, go to


New WGS-11 Satellite to Offer Greater Coverage, Efficiency than Predecessors

(DEC 26) EL SEGUNDO, Calif. — Boeing has developed a new variant of its 702 satellite for the U.S. Air Force's Wideband Global SATCOM (WGS) constellation, one that offers both greater bandwidth efficiency and signal power than previous satellites in the fleet.

The new WGS-11 will be delivered on a recently negotiated contract award from the Air Force.

Advances in Boeing digital satellite technology mean WGS-11 will deliver hundreds of coverage beams and provide a more flexible and efficient use of bandwidth. These innovations will enable the spacecraft to support more users in theater and allow dedicated beams to follow aircraft in flight.

"WGS-11 incorporates the latest advances in Boeing commercial satellite technology combined with a resilient and robust design specifically for military use in contested environments," said Troy Dawson, Boeing vice president, Government Satellite Systems. "We look forward to delivering this critically important asset to the U.S. Air Force in 2024."

WGS provides dedicated high capacity broadband communications connectivity to U.S. and allied forces around the world. Boeing has been the lead contractor on the program since it began in 2001.

For more information on Defense, Space & Security, visit Follow us on Twitter: @BoeingDefense and @BoeingSpace.


U.S. Space Force Established

Vandenberg AFB leadership responds to creation of U.S. Space Force

Base leadership claps as the National Defense Authorization is signed establishing the United States Space Force Dec. 20, 2019, at Vandenberg Air Force Base, Calif. (U.S. Air Force photo by A1C Hanah Abercrombie)

(DEC 20) PENTAGON, Washington D.C. -- Today the President signed the 2020 National Defense Authorization Act and with it, directed the establishment of the U.S. Space Force as the sixth branch of the armed forces.

"We are at the dawn of a new era for our Nation's Armed Forces. The establishment of the U.S. Space Force is an historic event and a strategic imperative for our Nation. Space has become so important to our way of life, our economy, and our national security that we must be prepared as a Nation to protect it from hostile actions," said Secretary of Defense, Mark T. Esper. "Our Military Services have created the world's best space capabilities. Now is the time for the U.S. Space Force to lead our Nation in preparing for emerging threats in an evolving space environment. This new service will help ensure we are postured to deter aggression, defend our national interests and outpace potential adversaries."

"Space is critical to our nation's economic interests, national security, and way of life," said Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, Gen. Mark A. Milley. "In military operations, space is not just a place from which we support combat operations in other domains, but a warfighting domain in and of itself. Our adversaries are building and deploying capabilities to threaten us, so we can no longer take space for granted. The U.S. Space Force is the necessary and essential step our Nation will take to defend our national interests in space today and into the future."

"The launch of the U.S. Space Force propels the nation into a new era," said Secretary of the Air Force, Barbara M. Barrett. "An agile, lean and technologically-advanced force of talented professionals will now singularly focus on protecting our U.S. national interests and security in space."

"With the establishment of the Space Force we elevate the organize, train and equip function consistent with the criticality of the space domain," said Gen. Jay Raymond, Chief of Space Operations and Commander, U.S. Space Command. "The U.S. Space Force will deliver the capabilities U.S. Space Command needs to control and exploit space for national advantage."

Department of Defense

DOD Tests Prototype Conventionally-Configured Ground-Launched Ballistic Missile

(DEC 12) On Thursday, Dec. 12, 2019, at 8:30 a.m. Pacific Time, the U.S. Air Force, in partnership with the Strategic Capabilities Office, conducted a flight test of a prototype conventionally-configured ground-launched ballistic missile from Vandenberg Air Force Base, California. The test missile exited its static launch stand and terminated in the open ocean after more than 500 kilometers of flight. Data collected and lessons learned from this test will inform the Department of Defense's development of future intermediate-range capabilities.

Imagery is available here.

Department of Defense

NMSU Astronomers Contribute to Discovery of Giant Magnetic Ropes in Galaxy's Halo

Galaxy magnetic filaments

Composite radio and optical image of the spiral galaxy NGC 4631 (the "Whale Galaxy") showing magnetic filaments extending into the galaxy's extended halo. Image courtesy University of Manitoba, NRAO, Max-Planck Institute for Radioastronomy, New Mexico State University, and the University of Bochum.

(DEC 4) LAS CRUCES, NM - A New Mexico State University astronomy professor and his former graduate students are part of an international team of astronomers whose work helped create an image of the "Whale Galaxy" (NGC 4631), made with the National Science Foundation's Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA), that reveals hair-like filaments of the galaxy's magnetic field protruding above and below the galaxy's disk. More

The Women of the Moon: Tales of Science, Love, Sorrow, and Courage

by Daniel Altschuler and Fernando Ballesteros (Oxford University Press; $26.95; 299 pages, hardcover, ISBN 978-0-19-884441-9)

(DEC 1) When the clerk at the post office handed me a box from the Oxford University Press, I was hoping it contained another excellent book from this prestigious publisher. I was not disappointed.

As I skimmed through The Women of the Moon over lunch, I was quickly intrigued with the book's concept. Although there are 1,586 lunar craters named for scientists and philosophers, only 28 are named for women, and the authors embarked to tell their stories.

The book begins with an overview of our solar system, the moon's features and characteristics, and early telescopic observations of our neighbor. This is followed by a chapter on the history of the naming of lunar features.

The core of the book consists of 28 biographies which describe the life, challenges, and contributions of each woman with a crater named in her honor. The biographies are well written and most of have a map showing the location and a spacecraft image of the crater bearing the woman's name.

I found all the biographies to be engaging and informative. For example, take the story of Hypatia of Alexandria (355 or 370-415 AD). I was a serious lunar observer in my youth and I remember seeing the crater Hypatia on my maps.

Before reading The Women of the Moon, I had no idea of what, or who, Hypatia was named after. I subsequently learned the crater was named for Hypatia, an accomplished mathematician, astronomer, and philosopher who lived through turbulent times and eventually met a grisly death.

The biographies are followed by appendices covering the moon's vital statistics and its role in creating the tides. The book's clear writing style is complemented by relevant, high-quality graphics and photos. Finally, the quality of the printing, paper, and binding give The Women of the Moon the look and feel of a fine book.

Astronomy and science history enthusiasts should consider adding this informative and interesting read to their book shelf or buying it for a young woman interested in STEM.

Brian Webb

Taklamakan Desert

Taklamakan Desert

A fine veil of dust shrouded China's western Taklamakan Desert as snow and cloud shrouded the eastern Pamirs in late November 2019. The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on board NASA's Aqua satellite acquired a true-color image of the region on November 19. Aqua was launched from California's Vandenberg AFB in 2002. Image courtesy of NASA

NASA Soil Data Joins the Air Force

(NOV 19) PASADENA, Calif. - Personnel with the Air Force's 557th Weather Wing are using soil moisture data from a spacecraft launched from Vandenberg AFB to support U.S. military operations. More

NASA's Mars 2020 Will Hunt for Microscopic Fossils

(NOV 12) Scientists with NASA's Mars 2020 rover have discovered what may be one of the best places to look for signs of ancient life in Jezero Crater, where the rover will land on Feb. 18, 2021. More

Starliner Completes Pad Abort Test

Starliner pad abort test

Boeing's CST-100 Starliner's four launch abort engines and several orbital maneuvering and attitude control thrusters ignite in the company's Pad Abort Test, pushing the spacecraft away from the test stand with a combined 160,000 pounds of thrust, from Launch Complex 32 on White Sands Missile Range in New Mexico. Photo courtesy of NASA

(NOV 4) WHITE SANDS, N.M. – Boeing today cleared a crucial test on the way to returning the United States to human spaceflight launch capabilities by completing a successful pad abort test of the CST-100 Starliner.

During the two-minute test designed to simulate a launch pad emergency, an uncrewed Starliner spacecraft lifted off under its own power from a test stand at the U.S. Army's White Sands Missile Range in New Mexico. The vehicle was able to demonstrate the proper performance of numerous integrated systems that would be needed to successfully propel the capsule away from its Atlas V launch vehicle at any point during the ascent.

At T-0 in the countdown, Starliner fired its four launch abort engines (LAEs) and several orbital maneuvering and attitude control (OMAC) thrusters. With 190,000 pounds of thrust, the spacecraft quickly pushed up and away from the test stand, showcasing how fast the system can whisk crews away from danger if necessary. The vehicle flew nearly a mile in just under 20 seconds before deploying its forward heat shield and parachutes.

Nearly 34 seconds into the test, the service and crew modules separated. As the crew module descended slowly to a safe landing under the parachutes, the service module continued to free fall as planned.

Just over a minute into the test, the vehicle's base heat shield separated, allowing the Starliner spacecraft's air bags to deploy and inflate in preparation for landing. The crew module touched down 95 seconds after the abort engines fired.

Over the next 24 hours, Starliner's crew module will be recovered for evaluation and analysis. Conducting this test over ground helps to preserve the crew module for reuse, and Boeing will use the data from this test to further validate system performance during nominal landing operations. Starliner is designed to be the first American-made orbital crew capsule to land on land, which will help make the crew modules reusable up to 10 times.


Armoring Satellites to Survive and Operate through Attacks

Satellite test defense test assembly

Sandia National Laboratories' Drew Woodbury works on a flat-sat assembly designed to prove software and cyber defense algorithms work before deploying them on orbiting satellites. (Photo by Meagan Brace)

(OCT 21) ALBUQUERQUE, N.M. — Satellites do a lot of things — they help people navigate from one place to another, they deliver television programming, they search for new stars and exo-planets and they enable the U.S. nuclear deterrence strategy. More

Dream Chaser Spacecraft Primary Structure Arrives in Colorado

(OCT 15) SPARKS, Nev. – Sierra Nevada Corporation (SNC), the global aerospace and national security leader owned by Chairwoman and President Eren Ozmen and CEO Fatih Ozmen, announces the arrival of the primary vehicle structure to the company's Colorado production facility, kicking off full assembly of the Dream Chaser® spacecraft ahead of its first mission for NASA in 2021. The structure is the largest piece of technology to make up Dream Chaser and the most advanced high-temperature composite spaceframe ever built.

The primary structure is a pressurized composite structure that will contain pressurized payloads heading to the International Space Station. The structure was manufactured by subcontractor Lockheed Martin and recently shipped from their Fort Worth, Texas facility to Louisville, Colorado, where Dream Chaser is being built and integrated by SNC.

Highlights about the design:

  • Uses advanced composite 3D woven assembly methods and represents the most advanced high-temperature composite spaceframe ever built.

  • Structure is about 30 feet long by 15 feet wide and approximately 6 feet high and weighs roughly 2,200 pounds.

  • Materials include carbon fiber reinforced polymers (CFRPs), more traditionally referred to as "composites."

  • The use of CFRP materials instead of aluminum and titanium alloys, lowers manufacturing costs for creating a unique, aerodynamically complex spaceframe design. *Composites decrease the amount of thermal protection required compared to an aluminum primary structure.

  • Advanced 3D woven construction minimize penetrations to the hot lower aeroshell.

Dream Chaser is scheduled to launch starting in late 2021 for at least six cargo resupply and return services to the International Space Station for NASA under the Commercial Resupply Services 2 (CRS-2) contract. The Dream Chaser Cargo System can carry up to 12,000 pounds of supplies and other cargo, and returns delicate science to Earth with a gentle runway landing.

Sierra Nevada Corporation

Air Force Awards $986M for Launch Services

(OCT 12) Space Exploration Technologies Corp., Hawthorne, Calif.; Xbow Launch Systems Inc., Auburn, Calif.; Northrop Grumman Innovation Systems, Chandler, Ariz.; Firefly Black LLC, Cedar Park, Tex.; United Launch Alliance, Centennial, Colo.; Aevum Inc., Huntsville, Ala.; VOX Space LLC., El Segundo, Calif.; and Rocket Lab USA Inc., Huntington Beach, Calif., have been awarded a combined ceiling $986,000,000 multiple-award contract with a nine year ordering period. The contract seeks to capitalize on the emerging small launch providers while providing dedicated and primary launch services to the Department of Defense and other government agencies. The program allows for the rapid acquisition of launch services to meet mission requirements for payloads greater than 400 pounds, enabling launch to any orbit within 12-24 months from task order award. Work will be performed at the contractor facilities and a variety of government launch sites, depending on mission requirements. The Space and Missile Systems Center, Kirtland Air Force Base, New Mexico, is the contracting activity.

Department of Defense

Minuteman III Launches From Vandenberg

Minuteman III launch from Vandenberg AFB

An unarmed Minuteman III intercontinental ballistic missile launches during an operational test at 1:13 a.m. Pacific Time Oct. 2 at Vandenberg Air Force Base, Calif. (U.S. Air Force photo by Michael Peterson)

(OCT 2) VANDENBERG AIR FORCE BASE, Calif. -- An unarmed Minuteman III intercontinental ballistic missile was launched during an operational test Wednesday, Oct. 2, at 1:13 a.m. Pacific Time from north Vandenberg.

Col. Anthony Mastalir, 30th Space Wing commander, was the launch decision authority.

"Here at the 30th Space Wing, we are committed to providing robust range support, which contributes to mission assurance for our partner, Air Force Global Strike Command," Mastalir said. "The Western Range is a critical part of the ICBM test and evaluation program, which lends to the credibility of our Nation's strategic deterrent. Our Airmen can be very proud of their contributions to the security of our country."

Vandenberg AFB

Northrop Grumman Awarded DSP Contract Modification

(SEP 27) Northrop Grumman Corp., Aerospace Systems, Azusa, California, has been awarded a $23,454,970 modification (P00031) to a previously awarded contract FA8810-15-C-0001 for the Defense Support Program (DSP) on-orbit satellite and anomaly resolution support. This support provides root cause analysis as a key component of the lifetime extension of DSP. Work will be performed in Azusa, California; Aurora, Colorado; and Colorado Springs, Colorado, and is expected to be completed by June 30, 2020. The total cumulative face value is $132,431,047. Fiscal 2020 operations and maintenance funds are being used and no funds are being obligated at the time of the award. The Space and Missile Systems Center, Peterson Air Force Base, Colorado, is the contracting activity.

Department of Defense

Hurricane Humberto

Hurricane Humberto from space

Since its launch from Vandenberg AFB, Calif. in 2002, NASA's Aqua spacecraft has returned numerous detailed images of Earth. In this recent example, Hurricane Humberto swirls in the Atlantic Ocean east of Florida. Aqua imaged the storm during a daylight pass on September 15. Image Credit: MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA GSFC

4th Space Operations Squadron Improves Space Warfighting Capabilities

(SEP 16) SCHRIEVER AIR FORCE BASE, Colo. -- The 4th Space Operations Squadron completed the first successful on-orbit testing of the Wideband Global SATCOM-10 satellite at Schriever Air Force Base, Colorado, Aug. 26-28. More

NASA Funds CubeSat Pathfinder Mission to Unique Lunar Orbit

(SEP 13) WASHINGTON, D.C. - NASA has awarded a $13.7 million contract to Advanced Space of Boulder, Colorado, to develop and operate a CubeSat mission to the same lunar orbit targeted for Gateway – an orbiting outpost astronauts will visit before descending to the surface of the Moon in a landing system as part of NASA's Artemis program.

The Cislunar Autonomous Positioning System Technology Operations and Navigation Experiment (CAPSTONE) is expected to be the first spacecraft to operate in a near rectilinear halo orbit around the Moon. In this unique orbit, the CubeSat will rotate together with the Moon as it orbits Earth and will pass as close as 1,000 miles and as far as 43,500 miles from the lunar surface.

The pathfinder mission represents a rapid lunar flight demonstration and could launch as early as December 2020. CAPSTONE will demonstrate how to enter into and operate in this orbit as well as test a new navigation capability. This information will help reduce logistical uncertainty for Gateway, as NASA and international partners work to ensure astronauts have safe access to the Moon's surface. It will also provide a platform for science and technology demonstrations.

The 12-unit CubeSat is about the size of a small microwave oven. Onboard is a communications system capable of determining how far CAPSTONE is from NASA's Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter and how fast the distance between the two spacecraft is changing. The inter-spacecraft information will be used to demonstrate software for autonomous navigation, allowing future missions to determine their location without having to rely exclusively on tracking from Earth.

A number of launch options are possible for the mission, including being the primary payload on a small spacecraft launch vehicle. After launch, CAPSTONE will take approximately three months to enter its target orbit and begin a six-month primary demonstration phase to understand operations in this unique regime.


USS Nebraska Tests Four Trident II D5 Missiles

Trident II missile launch

An unarmed Trident II D5 missile launches from the Ohio-class ballistic missile submarine USS Nebraska (SSBN 739) off the California coast, September. 4. The test launch was one of four conducted September 4 and 6 as part of a U.S. Navy Commander Evaluation Test, validating performance expectations of the life-extended Trident II D5 strategic weapon system. U.S. Navy photo

(SEP 6) SAN DIEGO, Calif. -- The U.S. Navy conducted four scheduled missile test flights of unarmed Trident II (D5) missiles from USS Nebraska (SSBN-739), an Ohio-class ballistic missile submarine, off the coast of Southern California this week. More

Why Are Sunsets Turning Purple?

(AUG 27) Every year, on average, about 60 volcanoes erupt somewhere on Earth, shooting ashy plumes of sulfurous gas thousands of feet into the air. Rarely do those plumes make it all the way up to the stratosphere. This summer, however, two volcanoes have done it. The Raikoke volcano in the Kirul Islands (June 22nd) and the Ulawun volcano in New Guinea (Aug. 3rd) both punched through to the stratosphere, sending material as high as 60,000 ft.

The action of these two volcanoes may explain why many sky watchers are starting to notice purple sunsets.

Why purple? Fine volcanic aerosols in the stratosphere scatter blue light which, when mixed with ordinary sunset red, produces a violet hue. The purple color is often preceded by a yellow arch hugging the horizon. As the sun sets, violet beams emerge from the yellow, overlapping to fill the western sky with a soft purple glow. High-quality pictures of the phenomenon often show horizontal bands cross-crossing the yellow arch. These bands are the volcanic gas.

Sky watchers shouldn't expect to see purple every night. The volcanic gas appears to be patchily distributed, bringing strange sunsets on some nights, not all. Clear air, lack of clouds, and country settings improves their visibility.

Water Weight

Water height

This recently released image shows the Mississippi River Basin bearing the weight of 8 to 12 inches (200 to 300 millimeters) more water than average due to Midwestern flooding. The view was created from data gathered by the twin Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment Follow-On (GRACE-FO) spacecraft in May. The GRACE-FO mission was launched from Vandenberg AFB in 2018 and is managed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, Calif. Image courtesy NASA/JPL-Caltech

Mission to Jupiter's Icy Moon Confirmed

(AUG 19) PASADENA, Calif. - An icy ocean world in our solar system that could tell us more about the potential for life on other worlds is coming into focus with confirmation of the Europa Clipper mission's next phase. The decision allows the mission to progress to completion of final design, followed by the construction and testing of the entire spacecraft and science payload.

"We are all excited about the decision that moves the Europa Clipper mission one key step closer to unlocking the mysteries of this ocean world," said Thomas Zurbuchen, associate administrator for the Science Mission Directorate at NASA Headquarters in Washington. "We are building upon the scientific insights received from the flagship Galileo and Cassini spacecraft and working to advance our understanding of our cosmic origin, and even life elsewhere."

The mission will conduct an in-depth exploration of Jupiter's moon Europa and investigate whether the icy moon could harbor conditions suitable for life, honing our insights into astrobiology. To develop this mission in the most cost-effective fashion, NASA is targeting to have the Europa Clipper spacecraft complete and ready for launch as early as 2023. The agency baseline commitment, however, supports a launch readiness date by 2025.

NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California, leads the development of the Europa Clipper mission in partnership with the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory for the Science Mission Directorate. Europa Clipper is managed by the Planetary Missions Program Office at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama.

Jet Propulsion Laboratory

SNC Selects ULA for Dream Chaser® Launches

(AUG 14) SPARKS, Nev. – Sierra Nevada Corporation (SNC), the global aerospace and national security leader owned by Chairwoman and President Eren Ozmen and CEO Fatih Ozmen, selected United Launch Alliance (ULA) as the launch vehicle provider for the Dream Chaser® spacecraft's six NASA missions to the International Space Station. The Dream Chaser will launch aboard ULA's Vulcan Centaur rockets for its cargo resupply and return services to the space station, starting in 2021.

"Dream Chaser can launch from any conventional rocket so we had great options," said SNC CEO Fatih Ozmen. "SNC selected ULA because of our strong collaboration on the Dream Chaser program, their proven safety record and on-time performance. This is bringing America's spaceplane and America's rocket together for best-of-breed innovation and exploration."

Under NASA's Commercial Resupply Services 2 (CRS-2) contract, the Dream Chaser will deliver more than 12,000 pounds of pressurized and unpressurized cargo to the space station and remains attached for up to 75 days as an orbiting laboratory. Once the mated mission is complete, the Dream Chaser disposes about 7,000 pounds of space station trash and returns large quantities of critical science, accessible within minutes after a gentle runway landing.

SNC's Louisville, Colorado-based Space Systems division is proudly partnering with Centennial, Colorado's ULA, boosting the already strong aerospace economic footprint in the state.

Vulcan Centaur's flight proven design, coupled with innovative technology, is transforming the future of space launch. The new rocket will provide higher performance and greater affordability while continuing to deliver unmatched reliability and precision. Approximately 90 percent of all of Vulcan Centaur's components will be flown first on Atlas V missions, so that its first flight will have reduced risk. Vulcan Centaur is a new class of space launch vehicle with the performance of a heavy launch vehicle in just a single core.

Owned and operated by SNC, the Dream Chaser spacecraft is a reusable, multi-mission space utility vehicle. It is capable of transportation services to and from low-Earth orbit and is the only commercial, lifting-body vehicle capable of a runway landing. The Dream Chaser Cargo System was selected by NASA to provide cargo delivery and disposal services to the International Space Station under the Commercial Resupply Services 2 (CRS-2) contract. All Dream Chaser CRS-2 cargo missions are planned to land at Kennedy Space Center's Shuttle Landing Facility.

Sierra Nevada Corporation

Hot Fire

Orion hot fire test

An Orion spacecraft propulsion system undergoes a test firing on August 5 at NASA's White Sands Test Facility near Las Cruces, New Mexico. The test simulated an abort-to-orbit scenario. Orion is a U.S.-European spacecraft designed to carry astronauts to orbit and beyond. Image courtesy of NASA

Rocket Lab to Reuse Electron Rocket

(AUG 6) HUNTINGTON BEACH, Calif. - Rocket Lab, the global leader in dedicated small satellite launch, has revealed plans to recover and re-fly the first stage of its Electron launch vehicle. The move aims to enable Rocket Lab to further increase launch frequency by eliminating the need to build a new first stage for every mission.

Work on Rocket Lab's Electron first stage reuse program began in late 2018, at the end of the company's first year of orbital launches. The plan to reuse Electron's first stage will be implemented in two phases. The first phase will see Rocket Lab attempt to recover a full Electron first stage from the ocean downrange of Launch Complex 1 and have it shipped back to Rocket Lab's Production Complex for refurbishment. The second phase will see Electron's first stage captured mid-air by helicopter, before the stage is transported back to Launch Complex 1 for refurbishment and relaunch. Rocket Lab plans to begin first stage recovery attempts in the coming year.

A major step towards Rocket Lab's reusability plans was completed on the company's most recent launch, the Make It Rain mission, which launched on 29 June from Launch Complex 1. The first stage on this mission carried critical instrumentation and experiments that provided data to inform future recovery efforts. The next Electron mission, scheduled for launch in August, will also carry recovery instrumentation.

Rocket Lab

Raytheon, DARPA Complete Hypersonic Weapon Design Review

(JUL 29) TUCSON, Ariz. -- Raytheon Company (NYSE: RTN) and DARPA completed a successful baseline design review for the Tactical Boost Glide hypersonic weapons program, establishing the company's technical approach for a critical design review and moving the system a step closer to development and use.

A boost glide weapon uses a rocket to accelerate its payload and achieve hypersonic speeds – velocities greater than Mach 5. During flight, the payload separates from the rocket and glides unpowered to its destination.

"We understand the urgency of the need and are working fast to deliver this advanced technology to our nation's military," said Dr. Thomas Bussing, Raytheon Advanced Missile Systems vice president. "The goal is to keep America ahead of emerging threats, and we are well on our way."

The U.S. military will use hypersonic weapons to engage from longer ranges with shorter response times and with greater effectiveness than current weapon systems.

Earlier this year, Raytheon received a $63 million DARPA contract to further develop the Tactical Boost Glide program, a joint effort between the agency and the U.S. Air Force.



Europe from Space

On July 23 skies were clear over much of Europe, allowing the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on board NASA's Terra satellite to acquire a true-color, sweeping image that stretches from Poland (east) to Spain (west). Terra was launched from Vandenberg AFB, Calif. in 1999. Image courtesy MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA GSFC

Maxar Chosen to Integrate Pollution Payload

(JUL 22) WESTMINSTER, Colo.-- Maxar Technologies today announced that it will integrate and fly NASA's Tropospheric Emissions: Monitoring of Pollution (TEMPO) instrument on a 1300-class satellite in geostationary (GEO) orbit. TEMPO will be the first space-based instrument to provide hourly monitoring of major air pollutants during the daytime across the North American continent at high spatial resolution.

TEMPO is a UV-visible spectrometer that will observe Earth from a vantage point about 22,000 miles above Earth's equator. It will detect pollutants by measuring sunlight reflected and scattered from Earth's surface and atmosphere. The resulting data from TEMPO will be used to enhance air quality forecasts in North America, enabling more effective early public warning of pollution incidents.

Maxar previously completed a study to accommodate TEMPO on a commercial GEO satellite. Building on the successful completion of the study, Maxar has been selected to integrate and fly the TEMPO payload. The instrument is currently slated for launch by 2022.

Maxar Technologies

Breakthrough Listen launches New Optical Search with VERITAS Telescope Array

(JUL 17) SANTA CRUZ, Calif. - The Breakthrough Listen initiative to find signs of intelligent life in the universe will collaborate with the VERITAS Collaboration in the search for technosignatures, signs of technology developed by intelligent life beyond the Earth. More

Virgin Orbit Completes Key Drop Test

Virgin Orbit drop test

Virgin Orbit's LauncherOne rocket falls from its launch aircraft during a drop test over Edwards AFB, Calif. on July 10. The test marked the beginning of the California-based company's transition to its orbital test flight launch campaign. Image courtesy Virgin Orbit

(JUL 10) Mojave, California — Virgin Orbit, Sir Richard Branson's small satellite launch company, announced today that it has successfully completed a key drop test of its LauncherOne vehicle, the last major step in the development program of the company's novel launch service. More

Sunspots from the Next Solar Cycle

(JUL 2) Solar Minimum won't last forever. How do we know? Because this week a cluster of small sunspots from the next solar cycle bubbled up to the surface of the sun. The dark cores didn't last long, but they had the unmistakable magnetic signature of Solar Cycle 25. Visit today's edition of for more information.

Robot Arm

2020 Mars rover arm

On June 21, engineers at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) in Pasadena, Calif. install the main robotic arm on the Mars 2020 rover (click to enlarge). Measuring 7 feet (2.1 meters) long, the arm will allow the rover to work as a human geologist would: by holding and using science tools with its turret. JPL is building and will manage operations of the Mars 2020 rover for the NASA Science Mission Directorate in Washington, D.C. Image courtesy NASA/JPL-Caltech

Starliner Space Capsule Completes Parachute Testing

(JUN 25) WHITE SANDS, N.M. — Boeing cleared another milestone toward launching its Starliner space capsule with the fifth, and final, qualification test of the vehicle's parachute system.

The final test was the most difficult. Two parachutes were disabled on a Starliner test article that was dropped from a balloon at an altitude of 40,000 feet. During a four-minute descent, the other parachutes deployed and the capsule touched down as planned at the U.S. Army's White Sands Missile Range. That installation will be a primary landing site for missions, as Starliner will be the first orbital American capsule to land on land rather than water.

Each Starliner will carry more than half a dozen parachutes, which are manufactured by Airborne Systems of Santa Ana, Calif. Airbags made by Delaware's ILC Dover will cushion Starliner at landing. Those airbags and other landing systems have already been qualified for crews through rigorous test programs. During the latest test, one out of the two drogue parachutes and one out of the three main parachutes were intentionally disabled.

The first Starliner launch, from Florida's Kennedy Space Center, is expected this summer. A United Launch Alliance Atlas V rocket will send an uncrewed Starliner to the space station for a week-long stay. After that, Boeing astronaut Chris Ferguson, and NASA astronauts Mike Fincke and Nicole Mann, could make the first crewed Starliner flight by year's end.

Ferguson, Fincke, and Mann may be the first Americans launched from American soil since the space shuttle retired in 2011. Ferguson commanded that final shuttle mission. Also, Mann will be the first female astronaut on the first flight of a new space vehicle.

For more information on Defense, Space & Security, visit Follow us on Twitter: @BoeingDefense and @BoeingSpace.


SpinLaunch Secures First Launch Services Contract

(JUN 19) LONG BEACH, Calif.--Jonathan Yaney, founder and CEO of SpinLaunch, has announced that the company has been awarded a responsive launch prototype contract from the Department of Defense (DOD), facilitated by the Defense Innovation Unit (DIU).

SpinLaunch is developing a kinetic energy-based launch system that will provide the world's lowest-cost orbital launch services for the rapidly growing small satellite industry. In 2018, the company received $40 million in a Series A financing round from Airbus Ventures, Google Ventures and Kleiner Perkins.

The recently published State of the Space Industrial Base states that the future and growth of the U.S. space economy is "critically dependent on continuing reductions in the costs and risks associated with launch. There is a bifurcation of launch providers between lower-cost, ‘bulk' carriers...and higher-cost, ‘niche' providers offering lower lift-mass, but launch to a specific orbit."

"SpinLaunch fills this gap by providing dedicated orbital launch with high frequency at a magnitude lower cost than any current ‘niche' launch system," stated Yaney. "This will truly be a disruptive enabler for the emerging commercial space industry. There is a promising market surge in the demand for LEO constellations of inexpensive small satellites for disaster monitoring, weather, reconnaissance, communications and other services."

In January 2019, SpinLaunch moved from Silicon Valley to its new 140,000 square foot headquarters in Long Beach, California and last month broke ground on a new $7 million test facility on 10 acres at New Mexico's Spaceport America. First kinetic energy flight tests are expected to occur early 2020 and the company has announced its plans for first launch by 2022.


Utah from Space

Utah from space

NASA's Aqua satellite flew over Utah on June 6, allowing the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer on board to acquire a colorful true-color image (click to enlarge) of sand, snow, salt and forest. The primary background tones in this part of Utah are browns and tans—the colors of rock and sand where scant vegetation grows. Dark green marks vegetated areas, primarily forests on the slopes of tall mountains of the Wasatch Range (running roughly north to south near the center of the image) and the Uinta Mountains. White snow blankets the mountain tops, especially of the Uinta. Image Credit: MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA GSFC

Falcon 9 Launch and Landing Successful

(JUN 12) VANDENBERG AIR FORCE BASE, Calif. -- Team Vandenberg supported the successful launch and landing of a SpaceX Falcon 9 rocket carrying the RADARSAT Constellation Mission from Space Launch Complex 4 Wednesday, June 12, at 7:17 a.m. Pacific Time.

The first stage of the Falcon 9 rocket landed at Landing Zone 4 approximately eight minutes after liftoff. This was SpaceX's second successful landing at Vandenberg Air Force Base.

Col. Bob Reeves, 30th Space Wing vice commander, was the space launch commander.

"Access to space is vital for space superiority," said Reeves. "Team V remains diligent in its efforts to provide robust range capabilities in a safe and efficient manner so our mission partners, like SpaceX, continue to have unfettered access to space. This mission highlights, yet again, our capabilities as a spaceport for the nation."

Vandenberg AFB

Orion Abort Motor Shipped to Kennedy

(JUN 4) MAGNA, Utah – June 4, 2019 – Northrop Grumman Corporation (NYSE: NOC) shipped the inert abort motor for NASA's Orion spacecraft Launch Abort System (LAS) from the Northrop Grumman facility in Magna, Utah, to Kennedy Space Center, Florida. It will be integrated with the LAS and Orion spacecraft destined for the first flight of NASA's Space Launch System, designated Artemis 1.

The abort motor is a key component of the LAS, which provides an enhancement in spaceflight safety for astronauts. The shipment of the abort motor brings Orion one step closer to Artemis 1 and to enabling humans to explore the moon, Mars and other deep-space destinations beyond low-Earth orbit.

The purpose of Orion's LAS is to safely pull the spacecraft and crew out of harm's way in the event of an emergency on the launch pad or during initial launch ascent. The abort motor underwent a series of component tests culminating in a successful static test in December 2018 at the Northrop Grumman facility in Promontory, Utah. Data from these tests confirmed motor activation within milliseconds and under both extreme cold and hot temperatures, ensuring crew safety.

The abort motor, which stands over 17 feet tall and spans three feet in diameter, is unique in that it has a manifold with four exhaust nozzles. The motor, shipped via thoroughfare in a transporter, will be unloaded at Kennedy Space Center. Integrating the abort motor is the first step in Orion's LAS integration process.

Northrop Grumman's next major abort motor milestone is the Ascent Abort-2 Flight Test (AA-2) set to take place at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Florida, in early July. In addition to the launch abort motor, Northrop Grumman is providing the launch vehicle designed to simulate an SLS launch for AA-2. The abort will take place during Max-Q, when the dynamic pressure on the spacecraft is greatest.

Northrop Grumman is responsible for the launch abort motor through a contract to Lockheed Martin, Orion's prime contractor. The Orion LAS program is managed out of NASA's Langley Research Center in Virginia. Northrop Grumman produces the abort motor at its Magna, Utah facility and the attitude control motor for the LAS at the company's Elkton, Maryland facility. The company also manufactures the composite case for the abort motor at its facility in Clearfield, Utah.

ULA Completes Design Review for Vulcan Centaur Rocket

(MAY 20) Centennial, Colo. – United Launch Alliance leaders and engineers completed an important milestone with the conclusion of the system Critical Design Review (CDR) for the company's new Vulcan Centaur rocket. The system-level CDR is the final review of the design for the overall rocket.

The system CDR was a week-long detailed review of the entire Vulcan Centaur system with the primary focus to verify all of the elements will work properly together as a system. As part of the certification process with the U.S. Air Force, Air Force representatives are included as part of the design review.

When the first Vulcan Centaur rocket flies in less than two years, a high percentage of the rocket will have flown before on ULA's Atlas launch vehicle including the fairing, upper stage engines in a dual configuration, avionics, software and solid rocket motors.

ULA and its suppliers have invested in and modernized the factory in Decatur, Alabama, bringing in state-of-the art manufacturing technologies. Flight hardware is already being built for the first flight, and the production is on schedule for the initial launch in 2021.

With more than a century of combined heritage, ULA is the world's most experienced and reliable launch service provider. ULA has successfully delivered more than 130 satellites to orbit that provide Earth observation capabilities, enable global communications, unlock the mysteries of our solar system, and support life-saving technology.

For more information on ULA, visit the ULA website at, or call the ULA Launch Hotline at 1-877-ULA-4321 (852-4321). Join the conversation at, and

United Launch Alliance

City of Stars

Los Angeles at night

A small satellite designed to hunt for new planets beyond the solar system recently looked down at Earth to capture an image of California's "City of Stars." The greater Los Angeles area stands out in this view from ASTERIA, a satellite not much larger than a briefcase. The image reveals a massive grid of illuminated city streets and freeways. A bright spot near the center of the view marks the location of Dodger Stadium and the Port of Long Beach is visible near the lower center. ASTERIA was developed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) in Pasadena, Calif., and the mission is a collaboration with the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). Image courtesy of NASA/JPL-Caltech

Raytheon to Install GPS Receivers

(MAY 13) AURORA, Colo. -- Raytheon Company's (NYSE: RTN) GPS Next-Generation Operational Control System program, known as GPS OCX, completed final qualification testing of the system's modernized monitor station receivers, which are now ready to be installed around the world starting in August. GPS OCX is the enhanced ground control segment of a U.S. Air Force-led effort to modernize America's GPS system.

"The modernized receivers give GPS OCX the ability to receive and decrypt all GPS III military and civil signals, a critical capability the current system doesn't have," said Dave Wajsgras, president of Raytheon Intelligence, Information and Services. "Monitor station receiver installation keeps us on track for full system delivery by our June 2021 contractual deadline."

The modernized receivers will measure and monitor legacy military and civilian signals sent by the current GPS satellite constellation plus the new signals sent by the next-generation GPS III. The receivers will also feed correction models at the master control station, giving U.S. Air Force satellite controllers the information necessary to make key adjustments to maximize accuracy.


Minuteman III Launches from Vandenberg

(MAY 9) VANDENBERG AIR FORCE BASE, Calif. -- An unarmed Minuteman III intercontinental ballistic missile was launched during an operational test Thursday, May 9, at 12:40 a.m. Pacific Time from north Vandenberg.

Col. Kris Barcomb, the 30th Operations Group commander, was the launch decision authority.

"It is our mission at the 30th Space Wing to provide robust and efficient range capabilities for the nation, and to do so safely and effectively," Barcomb said. "The Western Range plays an integral role in national security, and our ICBM test launch program helps maintain the credibility of our nuclear deterrent. Launching two Minuteman III intercontinental ballistic missiles one week apart is a true testament to the capabilities of Team Vandenberg."

Vandenberg AFB

Minuteman III Launches from Vandenberg

Minuteman III launch

An unarmed Minuteman III intercontinental ballistic missile launches during a operational test at 2:42 A.M. Pacific Time May 1, 2019, at Vandenberg Air Force Base, Calif. (U.S. Air Force photo by Staff Sgt. Brittany E. N. Murphy)

(MAY 1) VANDENBERG AIR FORCE BASE, Calif. -- An unarmed Minuteman III intercontinental ballistic missile was launched during an operational test at 2:42 a.m. PT, here, May 1.

Col. Kris Barcomb, 30th Operations Group commander, was the launch decision authority.

"The partnership between the 30th Space Wing and our Air Force Global Strike Command mission partners has culminated in another safe Minuteman III operational test launch," Barcomb said. "The tireless effort put forth by the 90th Missile Wing, 576th Flight Test Squadron and 30th Space Wing is simply remarkable. Their teamwork and combined efforts over the past few months showcase their immense dedication to the mission and why they are some of the best operators in the Air Force."

Vandenberg AFB

InSight Detects First Likely Marsquake

(APR 23) PASADENA, Calif. - NASA's Mars InSight lander has measured and recorded for the first time ever a likely "marsquake."

The faint seismic signal, detected by the lander's Seismic Experiment for Interior Structure (SEIS) instrument, was recorded on April 6, the lander's 128th Martian day, or sol. This is the first recorded trembling that appears to have come from inside the planet, as opposed to being caused by forces above the surface, such as wind. Scientists still are examining the data to determine the exact cause of the signal.

The new seismic event was too small to provide solid data on the Martian interior, which is one of InSight's main objectives. The Martian surface is extremely quiet, allowing SEIS, InSight's specially designed seismometer, to pick up faint rumbles. In contrast, Earth's surface is quivering constantly from seismic noise created by oceans and weather. An event of this size in Southern California would be lost among dozens of tiny crackles that occur every day.

Most people are familiar with quakes on Earth, which occur on faults created by the motion of tectonic plates. Mars and the Moon do not have tectonic plates, but they still experience quakes - in their cases, caused by a continual process of cooling and contraction that creates stress. This stress builds over time, until it is strong enough to break the crust, causing a quake.

SEIS has surpassed the team's expectations in terms of its sensitivity. The instrument was provided for InSight by the French space agency, Centre National d'Études Spatiales (CNES), while these first seismic events were identified by InSight's Marsquake Service team, led by the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology.

JPL manages InSight for NASA's Science Mission Directorate. InSight is part of NASA's Discovery Program, managed by the agency's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama. Lockheed Martin Space in Denver built the InSight spacecraft, including its cruise stage and lander, and supports spacecraft operations for the mission.

Jet Propulsion Laboratory

Mars 2020

Mars 2020 spacecraft

Major components of NASA's Mars 2020 mission come together in a clean room at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, Calif. JPL will build and manage operations of the Mars 2020 rover for the NASA's Science Mission Directorate in Washington, D.C. Image courtesy NASA/JPL-Caltech

Scientists Use Asteroid to Measure Smallest Star Size to Date

(APR 16) BERLIN, Germany & AMADO, Ariz. — Scientists in the VERITAS (Very Energetic Radiation Imaging Telescope Array System) Collaboration have published a paper in Nature Astronomy journal detailing the results of their work with the VERITAS array—located at the Center for Astrophysics' Fred Lawrence Whipple Observatory in Amado, Arizona—to measure the smallest apparent size of stars in the night sky known to date. More

SpaceX Chosen to Launch Asteroid Mission from Vandenberg

(APR 11) NASA has selected SpaceX in Hawthorne, California, to provide launch services for the agency's Double Asteroid Redirection Test (DART) mission, the first-ever mission to demonstrate the capability to deflect an asteroid by colliding a spacecraft with it at high speed – a technique known as a kinetic impactor.

The total cost for NASA to launch DART is approximately $69 million, which includes the launch service and other mission related costs.

The DART mission currently is targeted to launch in June 2021 on a Falcon 9 rocket from Space Launch Complex 4E at Vandenberg Air Force Base in California. By using solar electric propulsion, DART will intercept the asteroid Didymos' small moon in October 2022, when the asteroid will be within 11 million kilometers of Earth.

NASA's Launch Services Program at Kennedy Space Center in Florida will manage the SpaceX launch service. The DART Project office is located at the Johns Hopkins Applied Physics Laboratory in Laurel, Maryland, and is managed by the Planetary Missions Program Office at Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama, for NASA's Planetary Defense Coordination Office in Washington.

For more information about NASA programs and missions, visit:


Cygnus A

Radio image of Cygnus A

The National Radio Astronomy Observatory recently released this first-ever direct image (click to enlarge) of the center of Cygnus A, one of the most powerful radio galaxies in the universe. The view was created using data from the Very Large Array radio telescope in New Mexico and reveals a dusty, doughnut-shaped feature surrounding the supermassive black hole at the core. Image credit: Carilli et al., NRAO/AUI/NSF

Air Force and Raytheon to Modernize SPADOC

(APR 3) COLORADO SPRINGS, Colo. -- The U.S. Air Force Life Cycle Management Center and a consortium of tech firms led by Raytheon (NYSE: RTN) are modernizing and simplifying the legacy Space Defense Operations Center, a 1990s-era system that tracks and monitors space debris.

Dave Fuino, program director for Raytheon Intelligence, Information and Services, said: "Within just a few months we brought together a team, developed the technology to modernize it, got it on contract and held a series of demos to prove it worked. We went from concept to proving the solution in less than a year, which is really remarkable."

The SPADOC system reached the end of its planned service life. The U.S. Air Force is planning to replace it with modern systems that will simplify operations and provide greater space situational awareness and collision avoidance capabilities. However, the new system won't come online for several years.

"SPADOC provides critical space-tracking capabilities that we must sustain and maintain while we wait for new systems to come online," said Bob Taylor, U.S. Air Force Legacy Space Branch chief. "At the same time, it's critical that we address the obsolescence risk of an aging SPADOC system. So we came up with a really innovative, modern solution to this problem."

Raytheon and AFLCMC decided to emulate SPADOC's capabilities with modern computer hardware. The new emulated environment, SPADOC Emulation Analysis Risk Reduction, known as SPEARR, is designed to provide a more sustainable system that requires less maintenance. The new hardware will provide the same functionality as today's system, making it easy to learn and operate.

Additional benefits are significant reductions in power and cooling consumption. Most of these reductions are because all of SPADOC's capabilities are now integrated into two small server racks instead of spread over 1,000 square feet of an aging, analog computer system.

"We used proven emulation technology to help solve our challenge, significantly reducing obsolescence risk," said Taylor. "Innovations in programmatic and technical approaches drove a smarter, better and faster solution. The next step is to evaluate options for fielding SPEARR."


Missile Defense System Intercepts ICBM Target

(MAR 25) The U.S. Missile Defense Agency, in cooperation with the Joint Functional Component Command for Integrated Missile Defense, U.S. Northern Command, and elements of the U.S. Air Force Space Command's 30th, 50th, and 460th Space Wings, conducted a successful test today against an Intercontinental Ballistic Missile (ICBM) class target. This test was the first salvo engagement of a threat-representative ICBM target by two Ground Based Interceptors (GBI), which were designated GBI-Lead, and GBI-Trail for the test. The GBI-Lead destroyed the reentry vehicle, as it was designed to do. The GBI-Trail then looked at the resulting debris and remaining objects, and, not finding any other reentry vehicles, selected the next ‘most lethal object' it could identify, and struck that, precisely as it was designed to do.

The threat-representative ICBM target was launched from the Reagan Test Site on Kwajalein Atoll in the Republic of the Marshall Islands, over 4,000 miles away from the two GBI interceptors, which were launched from Vandenberg Air Force Base, California.

During the test, space, ground and sea-based BMDS sensors provided real-time target acquisition and tracking data to the Command, Control, Battle Management and Communication (C2BMC) system. The two GBIs were then launched and the Exo-atmospheric Kill Vehicles successfully engaged the target complex, resulting in an intercept of the target.

Initial indications show the test met requirements. Program officials will continue to evaluate system performance based upon telemetry and other data obtained during the test.

The GMD element of the ballistic missile defense system provides combatant commanders the capability to engage and destroy intermediate and long-range ballistic missile threats to protect the U.S. The mission of the Missile Defense Agency is to develop and deploy a layered ballistic missile defense system to defend the United States, its deployed forces, allies and friends from limited ballistic missile attacks of all ranges in all phases of flight.

Missile Defense Agency

Bering Sea Fireball

Bering Sea fireball

This recently released view from the Terra satellite's MISR instrument was taken a few minutes after an exceptionally bright meteor exploded over the Bering Sea. The shadow of the meteor's trail through Earth's atmosphere, cast on the cloud tops and elongated by the low sun angle, is to the northwest. The orange-tinted cloud that the fireball left behind by super-heating the air it passed through can be seen below and to the right of center. MISR was built and is managed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, Calif. for NASA. Image credit: NASA/GSFC/LaRC/JPL-Caltech, MISR Team

CatSat Mission Selected by NASA

(MAR 18) An inflatable space antenna designed by University of Arizona students is one of 16 small research satellites from 10 states NASA has selected to fly as auxiliary payloads aboard space missions planned to launch in 2020, 2021 and 2022.

CatSat is a 6U CubeSat led by UA students from the Lunar and Planetary Laboratory and various departments including aerospace and mechanical engineering, astronomy, computer science, and systems and industrial engineering.

"Let's say you are flying a space probe across the solar system and you want to beam a lot of data back to the Earth," says Vishnu Reddy, the principal investigator of the mission and an associate professor at the Lunar and Planetary Laboratory. "To do that, you need a large antenna, but those are too bulky to be carried on small spacecraft such as CubeSats. To overcome the problem of getting large antennas into small spacecraft, our group of students proposed a bold mission that would test a novel inflatable antenna system in space."

CatSat is the size of a large cereal box. When fully deployed, the inflatable expands in a bubble gum fashion, forming a sphere three feet across that sticks out from one side of the box. An aluminized spot inside the inflated sphere is used as the communication antenna to beam data back to the Earth. Since Catsat will be in low Earth orbit, the data can be downloaded using a ground station located at the UA.

CatSat is mainly a technology demonstration mission to mature this inflatable concept in Earth orbit. The ultimate goal is to fly such an antenna on an interplanetary mission that Reddy wants to lead to explore small bodies in the solar system.

Inflatable antenna technology is the brain child of UA astronomy professor Christopher Walker, who is also the science principal investigator of the mission. FreeFall Aerospace, a local small business co-founded by Walker to advance inflatable antenna technology, helped the project as an industrial affiliate.

Two engineering principal investigators – Roberto Furfaro, a professor in the Department of Systems and Industrial Engineering, and Jekan Thanga, an assistant professor in the Department of Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering – are leading the student teams who are building the actual spacecraft hardware on campus.

University of Arizona

Online Tickets to 'Explore JPL' Available Soon

(MAR 14) "Explore JPL" will be held at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California, May 18-19 from 8:30 a.m. to 4 p.m. Tickets will be available to the public online at 8 a.m. PDT on Saturday, April 6, 2019.

Visitors will have the opportunity to see, among other things, full-sized models of Mars rovers and to view the Mars 2020 rover that is being constructed in the Spacecraft Assembly Facility. Attendees can also see mission control and the machine shop, where precise parts are made for spacecraft.

Tickets are free but very limited and will be distributed on a first-come, first-served basis, with a maximum of five tickets per requestor. Orders for more than five tickets may be subject to cancellation. Tickets will be provided for specific time slots and must be reserved for specific names.

To attend, visitors must have their tickets in hand - nobody will be admitted without a ticket - and anyone age 18 or over must show a matching legal ID. Tickets are not transferable and cannot be sold.

Although children under two do not require a ticket, experiences at the event are not intended for very young guests.

Vehicles entering NASA/JPL property are subject to inspection. Visitors cannot bring these items to NASA/JPL: weapons, explosives, incendiary devices, dangerous instruments, alcohol, illegal drugs, pets and all types of skates, skateboards and Segways. Bicycling to NASA/JPL is welcomed, but not inside the event, as the venues are crowded with pedestrians. Bike racks will be provided near the main entrance. No bags, backpacks or ice chests are allowed, except small purses and diaper bags. Drones are not allowed to fly over NASA/JPL under any circumstances.

Online ticket registration begins promptly on Saturday, April 6, 2019 at 8 a.m. PDT

For more information, visit:

Jet Propulsion Laboratory

Rough Terrain

Martian Terrain

The "brain terrain" in this is Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) image is one of the unsolved mysteries on Mars. The surface texture of interconnected ridges and troughs is found throughout the mid-latitude regions of the Red Planet (this image is in Protonilus Mensae). This bizarrely textured terrain may be caused by buried water ice changing from a solid to a gas and forming troughs in the ice. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, Calif. manages the MRO mission NASA. Image courtesy NASA/JPL-Caltech/University of Arizona

NASA Selects USU-led Mission to Study Space Weather

(MAR 5) NASA has selected Utah State University's Atmospheric Waves Experiment (AWE) mission to study space weather from the International Space Station. More

Lockheed Martin Awarded Contract

(FEB 26) Lockheed Martin Space, Littleton, Colorado, is awarded a maximum amount $846,030,000 un-priced letter contract modification PH0001 to a previously awarded and announced un-priced letter contract (N00030-19-C-0025) for the design, development, build and integration of large diameter rocket motors, associated missile body flight articles, and related support equipment for Navy Intermediate Range Conventional Prompt Strike Weapon System flight test demonstrations. Work will be performed at Littleton, Colorado, with an expected completion date of Jan. 1, 2024. Fiscal 2018 research, development, test, and evaluation funds in the amount of $20,000,000 are obligated on this award, which will expire at the end of the current fiscal year. Fiscal 2019 research, development, test, and evaluation funds in the amount of $67,000,000 are being obligated on this award, which will not expire at the end of the current fiscal year. Strategic Systems Programs, Washington, District of Columbia, is the contracting activity.

Department of Defense

Virgin Galactic Makes Test Flight

Virgin Galactic flight

The Earth meets the black sky in this image taken during a Virgin Galactic flight to the edge of space on February 22. Virgin Galactic photo

(FEB 22) Mojave, California - Today, Virgin Galactic conducted its fifth powered test flight and second space flight of its commercial SpaceShipTwo, VSS Unity.

In its fifth supersonic rocket powered test flight, Virgin Galactic reached space for the second time today in the skies above Mojave CA. Spaceship VSS Unity reached its highest speed and altitude to date and, for the first time, carried a third crew member on board along with research payloads from the NASA Flight Opportunities program.

This space flight means Chief Pilot Dave Mackay and co-pilot Michael "Sooch" Masucci become commercial astronauts and the 569th and 570th humans in space. Beth Moses, Virgin Galactic's Chief Astronaut Instructor, flew as the third crew member in a first, live evaluation of cabin dynamics. She is the 571st person to fly to space and the first woman to fly on board a commercial spaceship.

In addition to this element of envelope expansion, VSS Unity flew higher and faster than ever before, as its world record-holding hybrid rocket motor propelled the spaceship at Mach 3.04 to an apogee of 295,007ft.

The crew enjoyed extraordinary views of Earth from the black skies of space and, during several minutes of weightlessness while the pilots "feathered" the spaceship in preparation for a Mach 2.7 re-entry, Beth floated free to complete a number of cabin evaluation test points. The human validation of data previously collected via sensors, and the live testing of other physical elements of the cabin interior, are fundamental to the provision of a safe but enjoyable customer experience.

The glide back home was followed by a smooth runway landing and a rapturous reception from the crowd on the flight line, which included staff and some of Virgin Galactic's 600 Future Astronaut customers.

Virgin Galactic

The Cosmic Mystery Tour – A High-Speed Journey Through Space and Time

by Nicolas Mee (Oxford University Press; $24.95; 224 pages; available March 2019)

(FEB 15) Nicholas Mee's forthcoming book "The Cosmic Mystery Tour" is an informative and fast read. In short order the author describes the components and workings of the universe from the sub-atomic level to the universe as a whole. He also covers the evolution of our understanding of the universe, the personalities who shaped that understanding, and the intriguing topics of dark matter, extra-terrestrial life, and interstellar travel.

The entire book was interesting, but I found Mee's descriptions of the fundamental forces of the universe and sub-atomic particles especially so. I had heard references to these subjects over the decades, but really didn't know anything about them.

The author communicates in layman's terms in a clear, entertaining style. Although some of the chapters of the book could be better tied in to one another, the overall organization and flow is good. The text is supported by numerous relevant illustrations. Unfortunately, I wasn't able to fully interpret some of the graphics because the originals are in color, but were printed in black and white in my preview copy of the book.

The Cosmic Mystery tour taught me more in fewer pages than any astronomy- or space-relate book I have read thus far. It is definitely worth reading.

Brian Webb

Minuteman III Launched

Minuteman III launch

An unarmed Minuteman III intercontinental ballistic missile launches fron Vandenberg Air Force Base Feb. 5 during a developmental test. U.S. Air Force photo

(FEB 10) An unarmed Minuteman III missile was launched late on the evening of February 5 from Vandenberg AFB, Calif. at 23:01 PST.

Sky watchers in the Arroyo Grande/Pismo Beach area, Point Mugu, Santa Barbara, and Ventura reported seeing the event. From Ventura the launch was reported to be clearly visible, reddish orange in color, and about magnitude -3 in brightness.

Brian Webb

Atlas V Chosen for Asteroid Mission

(JAN 31) Centennial, Colo. – NASA's Launch Services Program announced today that it selected United Launch Alliance's (ULA's) proven Atlas V vehicle to launch the Lucy mission, which is the first mission to Jupiter's swarm of Trojan asteroids. This award resulted from a competitive Launch Service Task Order evaluation under the NASA Launch Services II contract.

The Lucy mission is scheduled to launch in October 2021 from Space Launch Complex-41 at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station in Florida. This mission will launch aboard an Atlas V 401 configuration rocket.

Atlas V has a strong history in launching planetary missions for NASA including Mars Science Lab; New Horizons; OSIRIS-REx, the first U.S. mission to return asteroid samples to Earth; and the Solar Dynamics Observatory to study the sun.

Jupiter's swarms of Trojan asteroids may be remnants of the primordial material that formed the outer planets, and serve as time capsules from the birth of our solar system more than 4 billion years ago. Lucy will be the first space mission to study the Trojans. The mission takes its name from the fossilized human ancestor (named "Lucy" by her discoverers) whose skeleton provided unique insight into humanity's evolution. Lucy will complete a 12-year journey to seven different asteroids.

With more than a century of combined heritage, ULA is the world's most experienced and reliable launch service provider. ULA has successfully delivered 132 missions to orbit that provide Earth observation capabilities, enable global communications, unlock the mysteries of our solar system, and support life-saving technology.

United Launch Alliance

Moisture Map

SMAP spacecraft map of soil moisture

The amount of soil moisture across the continental U.S. is depicted in this recently released graphic (click to enlarge) from the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA). The USDA created the map using data from NASA's Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) spacecraft. SMAP was launched from Vandenberg AFB in 2015 and is managed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, Calif.

NASA's Opportunity Rover Logs
15 Years on Mars

(JAN 24) NASA's Opportunity rover begins its 15th year on the surface of Mars today. More

Delta IV Heavy Launched

(JAN 19) Vandenberg Air Force Base, Calif., (Jan. 19, 2019) – A United Launch Alliance (ULA) Delta IV Heavy rocket carrying a critical payload for the National Reconnaissance Office (NRO) denoted NROL-71 lifted off from Space Launch Complex-6 on Jan. 19 at 11:10 a.m. PST. The mission is in support of our country's national defense.

"Congratulations to our team and mission partners for successfully delivering this critical asset to support national security missions," said Gary Wentz, ULA vice president of Government and Commercial Programs, "thank you to the entire team for their perseverance, ongoing dedication and focus on 100% mission success."

The Delta IV Heavy is the nation's proven heavy lift launch vehicle, delivering high-priority missions for the National Reconnaissance Office, U.S. Air Force and NASA. With its advanced upper stage, the Delta IV Heavy can take more than 14,000 pounds directly to geosynchronous orbit, as well as a wide variety of complex interplanetary trajectories.

The mission launched aboard a Delta IV Heavy, comprised of three common booster cores each powered by an Aerojet Rocketdyne RS-68A liquid hydrogen/liquid oxygen engine producing a combined total of more than 2.1 million pounds of thrust. The second stage was powered by an AR RL10B-2 liquid hydrogen/liquid oxygen engine.

NROL-71 is ULA's first launch in 2019 and 132nd successful launch since the company was formed in December 2006.

ULA's next launch is the WGS-10 mission for the U.S. Air Force on a Delta IV rocket. The launch is scheduled for March 13, 2019 from Space Launch Complex-37 at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Florida.

United Launch Alliance

Falcon 9 Launched

Falcon 9 rocket launch

A SpaceX Falcon 9 rocket, carrying the final Iridium NEXT mission, launches from Vandenberg Air Force Base, Calif. on January 11. U.S. Air Force photo by Michael Peterson

(JAN 11) A SpaceX Falcon 9 rocket lifted off as scheduled this morning from Vandenberg AFB at 7:31 a.m. PST (15:31 UTC). The vehicle later successfully inserted 10 Iridium NEXT communications satellites into orbit.

Brian Webb

ULA Delta IV Heavy NROL-71 Launch Date Under Review

(JAN 5) Vandenberg Air Force Base, Calif. – The United Launch Alliance Delta IV Heavy carrying the NROL-71 mission launch date is under review. A new launch date and time will be provided pending the results of additional testing.

"We continue to remedy the technical issues that caused the last scrub of the Delta IV Heavy, and are working with our partners, the National Reconnaissance Office and the U.S. Air Force, to ensure that we fly when it is safe to do so," said Gary Wentz, vice president of Government and Commercial programs, "we understand that this is a high-priority mission for the nation's warfighters and we take our commitment to safety and mission assurance seriously."

United Launch Alliance

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